Chapter 14 Life span

24 June 2024
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10) According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is
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A) initiative versus guilt. B) industry versus inferiority. C) identity versus role confusion. D) intimacy versus isolation. Answer: D
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11) Some aspects of ____________, such as childbearing and child rearing, are under way in early adulthood.
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A) generativity B) ego integrity C) initiative D) identity diffusion Answer: A
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21) Tabitha, age 22, felt stressed about the direction of her life. She had always planned to be married by 24 and have her first baby by 26. Tabitha's age-graded expectations are
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A) based on split dreams. B) inappropriate in today's society. C) not typical for women. D) consistent with the "feminine" social clock. Answer: D
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22) Christine, a college graduate, held a variety of part-time jobs in her early twenties. She had neither married nor begun a career by age 30. According to Neugarten, Christine is likely to
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A) adopt a "masculine" social clock. B) suffer from self-doubt and lack confidence. C) adopt a "feminine" social clock. D) show gains in self-understanding. Answer: B
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23) According to Neugarten, the stability of society depends on having people committed to
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A) social-clock patterns. B) occupational flexibility. C) romantic love. D) generativity. Answer: A
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24) Which of the following is true about mate selection?
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A) Romantic love is rarely an important factor in mate selection. B) Little support exists for the idea that opposites attract. C) People rarely select partners that resemble themselves. D) U.S. women are increasingly selecting mates who are younger than them. Answer: B
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25) Research suggests that when Bobby and Betty select their mates, Betty will assign greater weight to __________, while Bobby will place more emphasis on ______________.
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A) physical attractiveness; intelligence B) domestic abilities; moral character C) financial status; ambition D) ambition; physical attractiveness Answer: D
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26) According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love,
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A) in most cultures, "opposites attract." B) intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop. C) initial passion turns into intimacy, which then leads to commitment. D) passion develops after commitment is established. Answer: B
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29) Adam and Drake have a warm and trusting relationship. They share attitudes and values. They exchange trusting affection and caregiving. According to Sternberg, Adam and Drake display ___________ love.
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A) passionate B) committed C) intimate D) companionate Answer: D
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30) Gayle has had a few dates with Joine. Early ________ love is a strong predictor of whether they will keep dating.
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A) committed B) intimate C) passionate D) compassionate Answer: C
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31) In the transformation of romantic involvements from passionate to companionate, __________ may be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.
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A) passion B) commitment C) monogamy D) intimacy Answer: B
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32) Maryellen and Mitchell have been dating for over a year. Their romance will most likely break up without ____________ love.
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A) companionate B) passionate C) realistic D) idealistic Answer: A
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33) Sal and Sadie have been married for 40 years. When asked to compare their current relationship to when they were newlyweds, they are most likely to say that
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A) their marriage has more passionate love now than earlier. B) they love each other more now than they did earlier. C) their marriage has more conflict now than it did earlier. D) they have become more like intimate friends than romantic partners. Answer: B
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34) An important feature of good communication in a romantic relationship is
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A) passionate love. B) constructive criticism. C) constructive conflict resolution. D) quiet reflection. Answer: C
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35) Which of the following is true about perceptions of intimate relationships in Eastern cultures?
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A) Trying to satisfy dependency needs through an intimate bond is regarded as immature. B) Mature intimate relationships are based on autonomy and intense emotion. C) Young people today do not consider love to be a prerequisite for marriage. D) In choosing a mate, young people are expected to consider obligations to others. Answer: D
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36) College students of Asian ethnicity are more likely than their Caucasian-American peers to endorse a view of love strongly based on
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A) companionship. B) physical attraction. C) passion. D) deep emotion. Answer: A
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37) Adult friends tend to be
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A) different from each other in most ways. B) similar in social class but different in age or sex. C) romantically involved with one another. D) similar to each other in most ways. Answer: D
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38) Friendship continuity is greater for _______, in part because they _______.
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A) women; see one another more often B) women; have friendlier dispositions C) men; see one another more often D) men; have a greater competitive nature Answer: A
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39) Which of the following is true about gender differences in adult friendships?
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A) Men have more intimate same-sex friendships than women. B) Female friends often say they prefer to "just talk" when they get together. C) Women prefer to "do something" when they get together with same-sex friends. D) Women are more reluctant than men to divulge information about themselves. Answer: B
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40) Which statement is true of long-lasting male friendships compared to shorter-term friendships?
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A) Male friends become more competitive in long-lasting friendships. B) Long-lasting friendships generally occur among unmarried men. C) Long-lasting male friends disclose more personal information to one another. D) Long-lasting male friends engage in joint activities, but limit personal disclosure. Answer: C
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41) Fernando recently got married. What will probably happen to his same-sex friendships?
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A) Those friendships will become more intimate. B) He will cut ties with many of his current friends. C) He will depend on them more as confidants and less as pals. D) He will share less personal information with his friends. Answer: D
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42) Compared with same-sex friendships, other-sex friendships
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A) are as common as romantic relationships during the college years. B) often interfere with romantic relationships. C) are more common for married men than single men. D) decline with age for women. Answer: A
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43) Which person will probably have the highest number of other-sex friends?
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A) Mary, a single mother and high school dropout B) Kari, an employed female chemist C) Gary, a married man in middle adulthood D) Barry, a married father of four Answer: B
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44) Which of the following is true about other-sex friendships?
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A) Women are more likely than men to feel sexually attracted to an other-sex friend. B) After marriage, other-sex friendships increase for men but decline for women. C) When a solid other-sex friendship evolves into a romance, it may be very stable and enduring. D) Men are more likely to confide in same-sex than other-sex friends. Answer: C
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46) Lisa, age 27, is unhappy because she lacks the gratifying friendships she once had during college and she does not have an intimate partner. Lisa is experiencing
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A) loneliness. B) a glass ceiling. C) an identity crisis. D) a split dream. Answer: A
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47) Which of the following is true about loneliness?
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A) Loneliness peaks during middle adulthood, then declines into the early part of late adulthood. B) Women not involved in a romantic relationship feel lonelier than men because they have fewer alternatives. C) Single, married, or cohabiting adults are lonelier than their separated, widowed, or divorced counterparts. D) Loneliness rises during early adulthood because young adults expect more from their intimate ties. Answer: D
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48) If they are all statistically average, which of the following individuals is most likely to be lonely?
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A) Janine, who is 40 years old and has never married B) Miguel, who is 50 years old and has recently married C) Donna, who is 25 years old and has recently divorced D) Steven, who is 35 years old and has been married for 10 years Answer: C
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49) Immigrants from collectivist cultures report
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A) higher levels of loneliness than people born in the United States and Canada. B) similar levels of loneliness to native-born Westerners. C) lower levels of loneliness than native-born Americans. D) low levels of intimacy in most romantic relationships. Answer: A
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50) Sarah is socially anxious and has an avoidant attachment history. Which of the following is probably true?
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A) She is sometimes lonely, but the feeling is not intense. B) She has periods of intense loneliness. C) She is rarely lonely. D) She develops intimacy quickly. Answer: B
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51) Which person is the most likely to experience loneliness?
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A) Grant, who has a secure attachment history B) Trent, who is comfortable being alone C) Melissa, who is socially unresponsive D) Grace, who is sensitive to others Answer: C
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52) Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got married. As her own children grew up and left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her husband died. This sequence of life phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the
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A) family life cycle. B) dual-loss model. C) social clock. D) cultural structure. Answer: A
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53) Which of the following is true about the family life cycle?
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A) The family life cycle represents a fixed progression of stages. B) The family life cycle is only applicable to families in industrialized nations. C) Few variations exist in the sequence and timing of its phases. D) Some people do not experience all family life-cycle phases. Answer: D
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54) Residential independence
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A) is less common for Americans in their twenties today than it was 50 years ago. B) rises steadily with age—a trend evident in most industrialized nations. C) is more likely to be encouraged by parents in collectivist rather than individualistic cultures. D) is common for young adults who marry, but not for those who remain single in their twenties. Answer: B
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55) Which individual is most likely to establish early residential independence?
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A) Mark, who is attending a local community college B) Mindy, who works part-time and is engaged C) Gretchen, whose parents are divorced and combative D) Garland, whose parents have been married for 25 years Answer: C
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56) Tanya is a single 22-year-old. She moved out of her parents' home and into her own apartment just to be "independent." Which of the following statements about Tanya is probably true?
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A) Tanya is less likely than her married counterparts to return home. B) Nearly half of young adults like Tanya return home for a brief time after leaving. C) Tanya is more likely to return home than her agemates who left due to family conflict. D) Tanya is unlikely to return home even for a brief period because it is a sign of weakness. Answer: B
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57) Which of the following young adults is the most likely to live with his parents?
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A) Teddy, who is economically well-off B) Jose, a Hispanic American C) Dennis, a Caucasian American D) Ken, a fourth-generation Asian American Answer: B
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58) Which young adult is more likely to live on her own?
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A) Mae Ling, a first-generation Asian American B) Rikki, an African American college student C) Julia, an economically successful Caucasian American D) Marisa, an unmarried Latina Answer: C
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59) Leaving home very early is associated with a(n)
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A) high level of education. B) successful married life. C) high level of social support. D) unsuccessful work life. Answer: D
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68) Which of the following couples is most likely to report high marital satisfaction?
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A) Destiny and Nick, who married at ages 18 and 19, respectively B) Taylor and Lucas, who waited to get married until they both had secure employment C) Demi and Neil, who have been trying for a baby for three years D) Emily and Cody, who got married after a whirlwind courtship of less than one month Answer: B
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69) Which of the following statements about marital satisfaction is true?
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A) Women tend to report feeling slightly happier with their marriages than men do. B) Couples in traditional marriages report greater marital satisfaction than couples in egalitarian marriages. C) Equal power in the relationship usually enhances women's satisfaction, but not men's satisfaction. D) The sharing of family responsibilities usually enhances both men's and women's marital satisfaction. Answer: D
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71) Today, in Western industrialized nations, parenthood is a(n)
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A) biological given. B) unavoidable cultural demand. C) matter of true individual choice. D) sign of maturity and affluence. Answer: C
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72) Which woman is more likely to delay parenthood or decide against it altogether?
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A) Molly, who has a traditional gender-role orientation B) Renae, who has a high-status, demanding job C) Ann, who works at a low-level, undemanding job D) Amanda, who is unemployed Answer: B
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73) Stimulation and fun, as well as growth and learning experiences, are some of the most important reasons that many adults cite for choosing to
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A) remain childless. B) get married. C) have children. D) remain single. Answer: C
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74) The most common disadvantage of parenthood cited by contemporary couples is
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A) a decline in marital satisfaction. B) not enough time for both family and work. C) not enough money for leisure pursuits. D) the loss of freedom. Answer: D
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75) Which of the following statements is true about violence in families?
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A) Most perpetrators eventually take responsible for their actions. B) When researchers ask American couples about fights that led to acts of hostility, men and women report similar rates of assault. C) Partner abuse occurs far less often in homosexual relationships than in heterosexual relationships. D) American men are twice as likely as American women to "strike first" in a fight, while women are more likely to resort to assault in self-defense. Answer: B
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76) Which of these factors is most likely to lead to partner abuse?
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A) The victim is jealous, dependent, and possessive. B) The victim is possessive, anxious, and independent. C) The abuser is indifferent and distant toward the spouse. D) The abuser is dependent, jealous, and possessive. Answer: D
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77) Many perpetrators treated for partner abuse
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A) repeat their violent behavior with the same or a new partner. B) take responsibility for their actions. C) attribute greater blame to themselves than to their partners. D) are women who exhibit violent behavior towards male victims. Answer: A
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78) After the birth of a first child, parents' gender roles
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A) often become more traditional. B) often become more egalitarian. C) are similar as before the child was born. D) are reversed for the first 6 months. Answer: A
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79) For most new parents, the arrival of a new baby
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A) typically causes significant marital strain. B) leads to high rates of anxiety and depression in both men and women. C) does not cause significant marital strain. D) leads to a sharp increase in marital satisfaction. Answer: C
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80) Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties
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A) causes greater marital strain. B) eases the transition to parenthood. C) causes gender roles to become more androgynous. D) decreases the likelihood of the father's involvement in child care. Answer: B
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116) The Wheelocks are both attorneys. Research suggests that Mrs. Wheelock's career path will be __________ and Mr. Wheelock's career path will be __________.
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A) discontinuous; continuous B) continuous; discontinuous C) traditional; unconventional D) unconventional; traditional Answer: A
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117) On average, people in their twenties move to a new job every
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A) six months. B) year. C) two years. D) five years. Answer: C
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118) Guillermo advanced very little in his low-level management job. His family, recreation, and community service assumed greater importance by his early thirties. Guillermo experienced
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A) family-work conflict. B) burnout. C) role overload. D) work disengagement. Answer: D
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119) Laurie just started a new job in her chosen field. She wants to select a helpful mentor. Which person would probably be her best choice?
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A) a top executive in the company B) another young graduate just starting his career C) a male supervisor D) a member of her professional association Answer: D