Chapter 13 Practice Exam

24 July 2022
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question
Which of the following is a type of RNA that gets translated? A) rRNA B) mRNA C) tRNA D) miRNA E) A, B, and C all get translated.
answer
B
question
Which of the following RNA molecules are required for the process of translation? A) crRNA B) tRNA C) snRNA D) snoRNA E) siRNA
answer
B
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Over time, DNA replaced RNA as the primary carrier of genetic information, and the chemical stability of DNA is believed to be the key reason for this. Which attribute of DNA is the reason behind its chemical stability? A) DNA lacks a free hydroxyl group on the 2ā€²-carbon atom of its sugar. B) Unlike RNA, DNA is usually double-stranded. C) DNA does not usually form hairpin loops. D) One of the two pyrimidines found in DNA does not involve uracil. E) DNA contains thymines, which make it more chemically stable.
answer
A
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This molecule is synthesized using nucleotides containing the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. A) RNA only B) DNA only C) Both RNA and DNA D) Neither RNA nor DNA
answer
A
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In eukaryotes, tRNAs are A) transcribed in the nucleus and function in the nucleus. B) transcribed in the nucleus but function in the cytoplasm. C) transcribed in the cytoplasm and function in the cytoplasm. D) transcribed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and function in the cytoplasm. E) transcribed in the cytoplasm and function in the nucleus.
answer
B
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____________________ probably began the evolution of life on Earth. A) DNA B) RNA promoters C) DNA polymerases D) RNA polymerases E) Ribozymes
answer
E
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During transcription, which parts of a DNA molecule are transcribed into RNA? A) All of the nucleotides in DNA on both strands B) All of the nucleotides on one strand of DNA C) Only parts of the DNA that encode mRNA D) Only regions of the DNA that contain genes E) Only regions of the DNA that encode rRNA
answer
D
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Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding transcription in most organisms? A) All genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA. B) Both DNA strands are used to transcribe a single gene. C) Different genes may be transcribed from different strands of DNA. D) The DNA template strand is used to encode double stranded RNA. E) The DNA nontemplate strand is used to encode single stranded RNA.
answer
C
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Which of the following is a sequence of DNA where transcription is initiated? A) Hairpin loop B) TBP C) Initiator D) Sigma factor E) Promoter
answer
E
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Where are promoters usually located? A) Upstream of the start site B) Downstream of the start site C) Near nucleotide +25 D) Near the hairpin loop E) Downstream of the terminator
answer
A
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Which of the following statements is NOT true? A) Both DNA and RNA are synthesized in a 5ā€² to 3ā€² direction. B) During RNA synthesis, the DNA template strand is read in a 3ā€² to 5ā€² direction. C) During RNA synthesis, new nucleotides are added to the 3ā€² end of the growing RNA molecule. D) RNA polymerase has 5ā€² to 3ā€² polymerase activity. E) RNA molecules have the same 5ā€² to 3ā€² orientation as the DNA template strands to which they are complementary.
answer
E
question
Whereas the nucleotide strand used for transcription is termed the _______, the nontranscribed strand is called the _________. A) promoter; terminator B) terminator; promoter C) transcription apparatus; TATA box D) template strand; nontemplate strand E) nontemplate strand; template strand
answer
D
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In transcription, to which end of the elongating strand are nucleotides always added? A) 3ā€² B) 5ā€² C) 3ā€² in prokaryotes and 5ā€² in eukaryotes D) It depends on which RNA polymerase is being used. E) It depends on which DNA strand is being used as the template
answer
A
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In a transcription reaction, two phosphate groups are cleaved from the incoming A) deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate. B) deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate. C) ribonucleoside diphosphate. D) ribonucleoside triphosphate.
answer
D
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What types of bonds are created between nucleotides during the process of transcription? A) Ionic B) Oxygen C) Phosphodiester D) Hydrogen E) Both C and D
answer
C
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In eukaryotes, which RNA polymerase transcribes the genes that encode proteins? A) RNA polymerase I B) RNA polymerase II C) RNA polymerase III D) RNA polymerase IV E) RNA polymerase V
answer
B
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The DNA replication enzyme that most closely resembles RNA polymerase is A) DNA polymerase I. B) DNA polymerase III. C) primase. D) telomerase. E) helicase.
answer
C
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When this molecule is synthesized, both strands of a DNA molecule are used as a template. A) RNA only B) DNA only C) Both RNA and DNA D) Neither RNA nor DNA
answer
B
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This molecule is synthesized using triphosphate nucleotides as a substrate for a polymerase enzyme that forms phosphodiester bonds. A) RNA only B) DNA only C) Both RNA and DNA D) Neither RNA nor DNA
answer
C
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The polymerase that synthesizes this molecule uses DNA as a template and synthesizes new strands from 5ā€² to 3ā€². A) RNA only B) DNA only C) Both RNA and DNA D) Neither RNA nor DNA
answer
C
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This molecule is made of nucleotides joined by phosphodiester bonds that connect the 2ā€² OH to the 5ā€² phosphate. A) RNA only B) DNA only C) Both RNA and DNA D) Neither RNA nor DNA
answer
D
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What is the function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase I? A) Transcription of rRNA genes B) Transcription of mRNA genes C) Transcription of tRNA genes D) Transcription of snRNAs E) Initiation of transcription (but not elongation)
answer
A
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Which of the following is NOT required for transcription? A) Ribonucleotides B) RNA primers C) DNA template D) RNA polymerase E) Promoter
answer
B
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Which statement about RNA polymerase is NOT true? A) RNA polymerase adds a ribonucleotide to the 3' end of a growing RNA molecule. B) RNA polymerase binds to a promoter to initiate transcription. C) During transcription of a gene, RNA polymerase reads only one strand of DNA. D) RNA polymerase reads a template strand of DNA 5' to 3'. E) RNA polymerase has many subunits.
answer
D
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If the following DNA strand were used as a template, what would the sequence of an RNA be? 5ā€² GTACCGTC 3ā€² A) 5ā€² GUACCGUC 3ā€² B) 5ā€² GACGGTAC 3ā€² C) 5ā€² CAUGGCAG 3ā€² D) 5ā€² GACGGUAC 3ā€² E) 5ā€² GUCGGUAC 3ā€²
answer
D
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If the sequence of an RNA molecule is 5'-GGCAUCGACG-3', what is the sequence of the nontemplate strand of DNA? A) 5'-GGCATCGACG-3' B) 3'-GGCATCGACG-5' C) 5'-CCGTAGCTGC-3' D) 3'-CCGTAGCTGC-5' E) 3'-CGTCGATGCC-5'
answer
A
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Which of the following is NOT necessary for RNA polymerase to recognize the promoter of a bacterial gene? A) Sigma factor B) Origin of replication C) -10 consensus sequence D) -35 consensus sequence
answer
B
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Which of the following features is primarily responsible for rho protein to cause termination of transcription? A) Recognizing unstructured RNA B) Helicase activity C) Migrating behind RNA polymerase D) RNA-binding activity E) Polymerase activity
answer
B
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Prokaryotic promoters contain the sequence TATAAT at the position -10 from the transcription start. A) +1 B) -1 C) -10 D) -25 E) -35
answer
C
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In prokaryotic RNA polymerases, the holoenzyme consists of the core enzyme and the A) rho factor. B) TFIID. C) TBP. D) omega subunit. E) sigma factor
answer
E
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When does sigma factor normally dissociate from RNA polymerase? A) After transcription has terminated B) After the process of initiation C) After the addition of nucleosomes D) After the binding of rho E) Following the addition of nucleosomes
answer
B
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In prokaryotes, rho-independent transcription termination depends on a secondary structure formed in A) the RNA polymerase that is transcribing the gene. B) the DNA template. C) the RNA that is being transcribed. D) a protein factor that binds to RNA polymerase. E) a protein factor that binds to the RNA that is being transcribed.
answer
C
question
An in vitro transcription system that contains a bacterial gene initiates transcription, but from random points on the DNA. Which of the following proteins most likely is missing from the reaction? A) Sigma factor B) Rho factor C) RNA polymerase II D) TATA-binding protein (TBP) E) TFIID
answer
A
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An in vitro transcription system that contains a bacterial gene does not initiate transcription. What is one possible problem? A) Histones that were on the DNA when it was isolated from E. coli are blocking access to the template. B) There is a mutation in the inverted repeat sequence that prevents a hairpin secondary structure from forming. C) There is a mutation at -10, where a promoter consensus sequence is located. D) Rho factor has not been added. E) TATA-binding protein (TBP) has not been added.
answer
C
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An in vitro transcription system transcribes a bacterial gene but terminates inefficiently. What is one possible problem? A) There is a mutation in the -10 consensus sequence, which is required for efficient termination. B) Rho factor has not been added. C) Sigma factor has not been added. D) A hairpin secondary structure has formed at the 3ā€² end of the mRNA, interfering with termination. E) Histones were added prematurely and interfered with termination.
answer
B
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Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the termination of transcription? A) In some organisms, transcription terminates thousands of nucleotides past the coding sequence. B) Transcription typically terminates precisely at the hairpin loop terminator sequence. C) In prokaryotes, transcription terminates as soon as rho has bound to the RNA. D) In yeast, transcription terminates as soon as Rat1 has bound to the RNA. E) Both C and D are correct answers
answer
A
question
Which one of the following statements regarding eukaryotic transcription is NOT true? A) Eukaryotic transcription involves a core promoter and a regulatory promoter. B) There is no one generic promoter. C) A group of genes is transcribed into a polycistronic RNA. D) Chromatin remodeling is necessary before certain genes are transcribed. E) There are several different types of RNA polymerase.
answer
C
question
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) binds to the TATA box sequence in eukaryotic promoters. What is its function in transcriptional initiation? A) It blocks access of RNA polymerase to the promoter, until removed by general transcription factors. B) It is the subunit of prokaryotic RNA polymerase that is required to recognize promoters. C) It modifies histones so that nucleosomes can be removed from DNA for transcription. D) It bends and partly unwinds DNA at a promoter. E) It creates a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides.
answer
D
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In eukaryotic cells, where does the basal transcription apparatus bind? A) Core promoter B) Regulatory promoter C) Terminator D) Enhancer E) Ribozyme
answer
A
question
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding TFIID? A) It contains a TATA binding protein. B) It aids in initiation of transcription. C) It binds to the core promoter. D) It binds to the TATA box E) It is a transcriptional activator
answer
E
question
What is the function of general transcription factors? A) They are DNA sequences to which RNA polymerase binds. B) They direct nucleosome assembly. C) They bind to regulatory promoters to increase the rate of transcription. D) They bind to enhancers to allow minimal levels of transcription. E) They are a part of the basal transcription apparatus
answer
E
question
In which of the following organisms would transcription be the LEAST similar to archaea? A) E. coli B) Yeast C) Plants D) Mice E) Humans
answer
A