CHAPTER 13

20 August 2022
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Why did slavery become more central to American politics in the 1840s?
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Territorial expansion raised the question of whether new lands should be free or slave.
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When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821
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its Native American population was relatively large compared to its non-Indian population.
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In 1821, the opening of the Santa Fe Trail between Santa Fe and ______________ led to a reorientation of New Mexico's commerce from the rest of Mexico to the United States
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Independence, Missouri
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term "Californios" referred in the 1830s and 1840s to ____________ in California.
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Mexican cattle ranchers
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American settlement in Texas in the 1820s and 1830s:
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led Stephen Austin to demand more autonomy from Mexican officials.
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Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren rejected adding Texas to the United States because:
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the presence of slaves there would re-ignite the issue of slavery, and they preferred to avoid it.
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Which two political figures agreed to keep the issue of annexing Texas out of the 1844 presidential campaign if possible
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Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren
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When Democrats demanded the "re-annexation" of Texas in 1844, they
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implied that Texas had once been part of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase.
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Fifty-four forty or fight" referred to demands for American control of:
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Oregon.
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James Polk had four clearly defined goals when he entered the White House. Which was NOT one of his goals?
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settle the slavery dispute
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During the Mexican War
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for the first time, the U.S. troops occupied a foreign capital.
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Who questioned President Polk's right to declare war by introducing a resolution to Congress requesting the president to specify the precise spot where blood had first been shed?
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Abraham Lincoln
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Who wrote "On Civil Disobedience" as a response to the U.S. war with Mexico?
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Henry David Thoreau
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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 provided for all of the following EXCEPT
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U.S. control of all of the Oregon Country.
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With the exception of Alaska, what was the last piece of territory acquired by the United States toward the solidification of its present boundaries in North America
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the Gadsden Purchase
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According to John L. O'Sullivan's Democratic Review, what was the key to the history of nations and the rise and fall of empires?
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race
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The California gold rush
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resulted in laws that discriminated against "foreign miners."
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Which of the following statements related to ethnicity was true in California in the 1850s?
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Thousands of Indian children were declared orphans and treated as slaves.
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During the 1850s, 80 percent of the world's gold came from two places that experienced gold rushes at about the same time, California and:
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Australia.
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What American naval officer negotiated a treaty that opened two Japanese ports to U.S. ships in 1854?
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Matthew Perry
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In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot proposed to:
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prohibit slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico.
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The Free Soil Party
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demonstrated that antislavery sentiment had spread far beyond abolitionist ranks.
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Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Compromise of 1850?
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The territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada would be created.
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The opponents of the Compromise of 1850
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received a boost from President Zachary Taylor.
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The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850:
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gave new powers to federal officers to override local law enforcement.
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The controversy over the arrest of Anthony Burns in 1854 shows
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the unpopularity of the Fugitive Slave Act in parts of the North.
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Stephen Douglas's motivation for introducing the Kansas-Nebraska Act
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was to boost efforts to build a transcontinental railroad.
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of the following is an example of the political impact of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
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The Whig Party collapsed, and many disgruntled northerners joined the new Republican Party.
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What attracted voters to the Know-Nothing Party
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its denunciation of Roman Catholic immigrants
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In 1854, the Know-Nothings won all the congressional races as well as the governorship in
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Massachusetts.
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By 1856, the Republican Party included individuals who had been, until rather recently, members of each of the following political groups EXCEPT:
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Federalists.
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The Republican free labor ideology
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led to the argument by Abraham Lincoln and William Seward that free labor and slave labor were essentially incompatible
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The caning of Charles Sumner by Preston Brooks
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actually helped the new Republican Party.
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The Republican Party founded in the 1850s strongly endorsed the same policy about slavery in the territories that ____________ had begun advocating in 1846.
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David Wilmot
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The Republican presidential candidate in 1856 was:
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John FrΓ©mont.
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The Dred Scott decision of the U.S. Supreme Court
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declared Congress could not ban slavery from territories.
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On matters related to citizenship, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Dred Scott that
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only white persons could be U.S. citizens.
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The Lecompton Constitution was the
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proslavery constitution proposed for Kansas.
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The famous Lincoln-Douglas debates took place during the campaign for
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U.S. senator from Illinois in 1858.
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During his debate with Abraham Lincoln in Freeport, Illinois, Stephen Douglas
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insisted that popular sovereignty was compatible with the Dred Scott decision.
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Who was responsible for the 1856 Pottawatomie Creek Massacre in Kansas and led the raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859
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John Brown
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What 1854 document called for the United States to seize Cuba?
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the Ostend Manifesto
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In the 1850s, Tennessee-born William Walker became famous for:
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seeking to establish himself as ruler of a slaveholding Nicaragua.
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The 1860 Republican platform stated all of the following EXCEPT
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Slavery should be abolished in the nation's capital.
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Democratic Party split in 1860 over the question of whether to:
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protect slavery in the territories or allow popular sovereignty in them.
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In the 1860 election, how many different presidential candidates won electoral votes?
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four
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In the presidential election of 1860, the two candidates who received the most votes in the southern states were:
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John Breckinridge and John Bell
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Which of the following puts these events in the proper chronological order, from first to last? I. Virginia seceded from the Union II. Abraham Lincoln was first elected president III. Confederate States of America formed IV. South Carolina seceded from the Union
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II, IV, III, I
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What were James Polk's four clearly defined goals when he entered the White House?
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Reduce the tariff, reestablish the independent Treasury System, settle the dispute over ownership of Oregon, and bring California into the Union
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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 provided for what stipulations?
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The annexation of Texas, ceded California and present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah to the US, in exchange for $15 million to go to Mexico
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What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?
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The slave trade, not slavery itself, would be abolished in the capital, a new law would be made that would allow southerners to reclaim runaway slaves, the status of slavery in Mexico would be left up to it's local white inhabitants, and the US would agree to pay off the massive debt that Texas had accumulated while independent
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By 1856, the Republican Party was an amalgamation of members from which political parties?
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Antislavery Democrats, Whigs, free soilers, and Know Nothings
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What were the tenets of the 1860 Republican platform?
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Devotion to the Union, emphasis on the moral dimension of the sectional controversy, argued the validity of the Dred Scott decision, reaffirmed opposition to slavery's expansion and free homesteads in the west, a protective tariff, and governments aid in building a transcontinental railroad
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Who offered the most widely supported compromise plan in Congress, which allowed the western expansion of the Missouri Compromise line?
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Senator John J. Crittenden
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The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861 on what event?
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The south fired the first shot at Fort Sumter, which was an enclave of the Union control in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina
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Despite earlier efforts to settle the issue, the slavery question became a major issue in the 1840s and 1850s because the
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B. Nation Was Expanding West
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2. Advocates of Manifest Destiny claimed the motive for territorial expansion was to A) achieve a political balance between North and South B) secure new resources and markets for the United States C) settle the issue of slavery in the West D) extend American liberty to new territories E) ensure that no foreign powers gained territory in North America
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D) extend American liberty to new territories
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3. Almost all of the supporters of Manifest Destiny agreed that A) Americans had a God-given right to expand their superior civilization into new territory B) the "empire of liberty" should extend into Canada and Mexico C) the United States could use force to achieve this expansion D) expansion should serve the economic interests of Americans E) the United States should annex large sections of Mexico
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A. Americans had a god-given right to expand their superior civilaztion into new territory
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4. The initial migration of American settlers to Texas was encouraged by the A) Mexican government B) Catholic church C) American government D) American Colonization Society E) Liberty party
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A. Mexican gov
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The main reason for the Texas Revolution was A) Mexico was determined to drive all Americans out of Texas B) Mexico had become a dictatorship C) failure of James Polk to pursue expansion D) the United States' desire to gain control of the territory of Mexico E) the Texans' desire to overthrow the government of Mexico
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B. Mexico had become a dicatorship
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6. The victorious commanding general at the Battle of San Jacinto was A) Davy Crockett B) Jim Bowie C) Andrew Jackson D) Sam Houston E) William Travis
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D. Sam Houston
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7. Just before Texas became a U.S. state in 1845, Texas was A) an independent nation B) part of Mexico C) a free-labor territory D) a U.S. territory E) a jointly occupied area claimed by Mexico and England
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A. an independent nation
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8. In the 1840s, the Oregon Country's ownership remained in dispute between the United States and A) Mexico B) Russia C) France D) Great Britain E) Canada
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D. britian
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9. The first permanent American settlers in Oregon were mainly A) missionaries B) gold prospectors C) fur traders D) cattle ranchers E) members of the army
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c. fur traders
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10. The second wave of permanent American settlers in Oregon were mainly A) missionaries B) gold prospectors C) fur traders D) cattle ranchers E) land speculators
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A. Missionaries
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11. Most migrants traveled to the West Coast by A) clipper ship B) stage coach C) rail line D) covered wagon E) horseback
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d. covered wagon
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12. The westward journey to the West Coast in the 1840s could be characterized as A) relatively easy and safe B) dangerous and strenuous C) disease free and relatively short D) dangerous because of Indian attack E) unsuccessful at reaching the West
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B. Dangerous and strenuous
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13. In the election campaign of 1844, Henry Clay A) urged the immediate annexation of Texas B) denounced the proposed annexation of Texas C) suggested selling Texas to Great Britain or France D) called for war with Mexico E) tried to avoid the issue of Texas
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E. tried to avoid the issue of Texas
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