CH 5 Reading Questions Microbiology

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following terms refers to pathways that can function both in anabolism and catabolism?
answer
An amphibolic pathway has a dual purpose.
question
Microbes are often identified using biochemical tests that detect specific enzymes of metabolic pathways. E.coli typically ferments lactose, whereas the dysenterybacterium, Shigella, does not. If a pure culture of each bacterium were placed in a tube containing lactose as the only food source, and a chemical indicator changed color if the tube became acid, what would the tubes look like after the bacteria were incubated?
answer
This biochemical test is used to differentiate E. coli, which produces lactase and ferments the sugar (thereby producing acids), from Shigella, which does not produce lactase.
question
When proteins are oxidized, all of the following are true EXCEPT which one?
answer
This is not true of protein oxidation but it is true of lipid oxidation.
question
Much of the energy released in catabolic reactions is captured in ATP for use in other reactions. When the phosphate is transferred directly from an organic molecule to ADP in order to produce ATP, as represented by C--C--C ~P + ADP ā†’ C--C--C + ATP, this represents __________.
answer
This is the case when the phosphate is transferred from a substrate to ADP.
question
Which of the following is true concerning ribozymes?
answer
Ribozymes are RNA molecules that act as catalysts without being used up.
question
Which of the following is true of aerobic respiration compared to anaerobic respiration?
answer
In anaerobic respiration, the final electron (hydrogen) acceptor is an inorganic substance other than oxygen, such as nitrate, sulfate, or carbonate.
question
In cellular respiration of glucose, what are the three principal stages?
answer
The glucose is split in glycolysis, and the products enter the Krebs cycle, where they are further broken down. The process concludes with the harvesting of energy in the electron transport chain.
question
Which of the following correctly matches enzyme components with their correct definition and/or function?
answer
Apoenzymes are inactive by themselves but are activated by the organic coenzymes
question
Which of the following conditions would increase enzymatic activity in a bacterial cell that normally thrives in the human body?
answer
Most chemical reactions increase with higher temperature within the optimum range because the molecules are moving faster.
question
Which of the following is true of anabolic reactions?
answer
Anabolic reactions use ATP and small substrates as building blocks to synthesize larger molecules.