CH 5

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?
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Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
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Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.
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produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
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Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
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Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
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Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
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eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
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Just beneath the stratum basale of the epidermis is the
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papillary layer of the dermis.
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The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?
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They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person
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If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?
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lucidum
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Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
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in the axillary and anogenital area
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Vernix caseosa is a ________.
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whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
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Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.
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diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
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An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.
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phagocytic cell
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Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.
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male hormones
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Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
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Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
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What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?
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nutrition and hormones
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Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?
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arrector pili
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Acne is a disorder associated with ________.
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sebaceous glands
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The main protein in hair and nails is
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keratin.
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Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?
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Meissner's corpuscles
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Which of the following structures secretes a lubricant for hair and skin?
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sebaceous gland
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The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:
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dermal papillae.
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The principal tissue found in the dermal layer is
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dense irregular connective tissue.
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Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?
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eccrine and apocrine
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Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
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The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
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The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?
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macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells
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The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
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99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
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Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.
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resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
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A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
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corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
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In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
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It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
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Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.
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accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
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Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?
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Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
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The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
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allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
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Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
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by using the "rule of nines"
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The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
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external root sheath
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Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?
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Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
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The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
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ceruminous
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The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.
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by hormones, especially androgens
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Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?
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Meissner's corpuscle
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Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?
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Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
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The dermis ________.
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has two layers
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________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.
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Porphyria
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Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?
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Squamous cell carcinoma
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Which of the following types of sweat gland secretion is thought to deter insects?
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ceruminous
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The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
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stratum basale
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Which type of epithelium has the following characteristics: multiple layers, squamous cell shape, dead outer layers of cells, and keratin present in some cells?
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stratified keratinized squamous epithelium
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The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension (cleavage) lines in the skin?
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the reticular layer
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The most important role of the eccrine sweat gland is
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body temperature regulation.
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The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?
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fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
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The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
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the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
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What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
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catastrophic fluid loss
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Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?
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The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.