________ is a waste product of cellular respiration.
- Carbon dioxide
What structure do insects use to deliver air close to each body cell?
- saclike lungs
- elaborate branching air tubes called tracheae
elaborate branching air tubes called tracheae
Spiracles bring air into tracheae.
Assume that you watch an earthworm crawl across the pavement on a warm sunny day and notice that its skin is drying out. What will be the immediate result of dry skin and the ultimate cause of death?
- heat effects
Moist skin is an excellent gas-exchange organ in the earthworm but when the skin is dry, oxygen cannot diffuse through it.
Which respiratory system characteristics are shared by fish, frogs, jellyfish, and earthworms?
- respiratory system with a complex network of tubes
- lack of a true circulatory system
- internal respiratory structures
- gas exchange across a moist respiratory surface
- gas exchange across the skin
gas exchange across a moist respiratory surface
Which sequence of animals is an example of how animal respiratory systems evolved?
Movement of O2 from the outside air to respiratory surfaces by breathing is an example of:
- active transport.
- facilitated diffusion.
- bulk flow.
The lungs of reptiles are better developed than those of amphibians because reptiles:
- lay shelled eggs.
- have a dry, scaly skin.
- are larger animals.
- use oxygen for cellular processes.
- have a higher metabolic rate.
have a dry, scaly skin.
All of the following are respiratory surfaces EXCEPT:
- alveoli of a raccoon.
- skin of an earthworm.
- gills of a fish.
- tracheae of a fly.
- bat wings.
What are spiracles?
- openings into the tracheae of insects
- openings into the alveoli of the lungs
- openings between the gills of a frog tadpole
- openings to the bronchi
openings into the tracheae of insects
Although amphibians use gills during their aquatic larval stage and develop simple, sac-like lungs as adults, some may also depend on an additional mechanism for gas exchange. What is it?
- inflatable air sacs that store air
- thin projections of the body surface that protrude into the surrounding water
- countercurrent exchange mechanisms
- diffusion of gases into and out of capillaries through their thin, moist skin
diffusion of gases into and out of capillaries through their thin, moist skin
What is the purpose of the diaphragm, a large sheet of muscle that forms the lower boundary of the chest cavity?
- It facilitates inhalation and exhalation.
- As it contracts, it assists the heart in moving blood to the lungs.
- It controls oxygenation of the blood.
- Along with the ribs it protects the heart and lungs.
It facilitates inhalation and exhalation.
Why is carbon monoxide such a toxic chemical?
- It is toxic to the liver.
- It causes emphysema by attacking the walls of the alveoli.
- When inhaled, it competes for the same sites on hemoglobin that bind oxygen and prevents transport of oxygen.
- It can be rapidly absorbed by the skin.
When inhaled, it competes for the same sites on hemoglobin that bind oxygen and prevents transport of oxygen.
Carbon monoxide adheres more than 200 times more tightly to hemoglobin than does carbon dioxide.
What activity will prevent cilia from continuously sweeping mucus and trapped debris upward toward the pharynx?
- holding your breath
- drinking alcohol
In what part of the lung does gas exchange occur?
How many bronchi does the human have?
The trachea splits into two large branches called bronchi, one leading to each lung.
Where do air from the nose and air from the mouth join?
- the diaphragm relaxes.
- the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
- air moves up the trachea.
- the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
- oxygen molecules move into the lungs, and carbon dioxide molecules move out of the lungs.
the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
The contraction of these muscles causes air to enter the lungs.
From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
Alveoli are tiny sacs in the lungs surrounded by capillaries. The alveoli are where oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood.
Which statement is correct?
- In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
- Oxygen diffuses from large blood vessels into the body's cells.
- Carbon dioxide diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries.
- Oxygen is released from the mitochondria as a product of cellular respiration.
- As oxygen diffuses from the lungs into capillaries, blood becomes deoxygenated.
In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
When oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the surrounding capillaries, it enters a red blood cell and binds to hemoglobin.
After blood becomes oxygenated,
- it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to the lungs.
- it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to the lungs.
- it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
- it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to capillaries that supply the body's cells with oxygen.
- it does not return to the heart, but goes to the nose and mouth.
it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
- uses ATP to move oxygen from blood to body cells.
- is the site of cellular respiration.
- is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
- is found in blood plasma.
- has five subunits.
is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
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