A person who feels committed to multiple cultures would be called a
A. ethnocentric person.
B. individualistic person.
C. fully formed person.
*D. bicultural person.
Which of the following best describes "one's beliefs, awareness, values, subjective experience, sense of purpose and mission, and an attempt to reach toward something greater than oneself".
D. sexual orientation.
Gysbers et al point out that career development interventions in the United States tend to favor tenets that reflect a European-American perspective. These tenets include all of the following except
A. individualism and autonomy.
C. structure of opportunity for all.
*D. affordable housing
Emic approaches to counseling support interventions that are
B. universally applicable.
*C. culturally specific.
The process of adopting the traits or social patterns of another group is known as
B. cultural pluralism.
The stages of racial identity development include all of the following except
The Nigrescence theory of black identity includes all of the following stages except
Stereotypically, sex role socialization has exerted influence over the early development of girls by reinforcing
A. competition and skill mastery.
B. job hunting and career skills.
*C. relationships and connectedness.
D. home-making skills.
Oppressive environmental influences that restrict the career development of women occur most frequently in
A. centers for women and women's shelters.
*B. the home, school, community, and workplace.
C. many counseling centers that support women.
D. television and movies.
Integrating gender into the career development intervention process is important for men because they are often
*A. restricted in levels of self-disclosure.
B. subject to oppressive environmental influences in the workplace.
C. focused strongly on family and relationship needs.
D. restricted in levels of competitive and physical behavior.
Developmental issues that typically confront persons with disabilities include all of the following except
A. confronting attitudinal barriers.
B. overcoming generalizations.
C. developing skills for independent living.
*D. narrowing social outlets.
Typical domains for vocational assessments for persons with disabilities include
*D. all of the above.
Walsh and Betz (1990) describe an assessment model which includes all of the following steps except
A. clarifying the problem.
B. gathering information.
C. understanding the problem.
*D. solving the problem.
The impact of culture on the assessment process is
B. noticeable in the initial phases only.
C. noticeable in the final phases only.
*D. significant throughout the process.
Whether the scales of a test measure the same constructs across cultures is an indicator of
A. functional equivalence.
*B. metric equivalence.
C. conceptual equivalence.
D. linguistic equivalence.
Assessment is defined as
A. a standardized test.
*B. any formal or informal technique used to collect data about a client.
C. an informal method of acquiring information.
D. an evaluative measure.
Though assessment may be used in several steps of the career planning process, its greatest usefulness is likely to be at Step
All of the following are reasons to administer assessment except so that the
A. counselor can learn more about the needs of the client. B. counselor can determine the progress of an individual or group.
C. client can learn more about himself or herself.
*D. counselor can prescribe the best course of action for the client.
Which of the following have "right and wrong answers"?
B. informal activities
A forced-choice activity is a/an
A. formal assessment instrument.
*B. informal assessment instrument.
C. type of career fantasy.
D. way of measuring abilities
All of the following are true of formal assessments except that they
A. have no standard method of interpretation.
B. have no standard way to compare one person's scores with those of others.
C. have known reliability.
*D. are usually free of charge.
A raw score indicates
A. how some characteristic of one individual compares with that of others.
B. whether a person's scores are in the top quartile.
C. how many standard deviations a score is from the middle of the distribution.
*D. the total number of responses related to some category.
The Career Maturity Inventory (Crites and Savickas) is an example of an instrument that can be used to measure
*B. readiness to make career decisions.
C. work skills.
Any of the following could be used to measure interests except
A. The Self-Directed Search.
B. The Kuder Career Search.
D. Campbell Interest and Skill Survey
One good reason to suggest that clients take assessment via the Internet rather than in print form is that
*A. score reports are available immediately.
B. instruments administered in this mode have been thoroughly researched.
C. instruments are always free of charge.
D. scores are more reliable.
When planning to administer an assessment instrument to a student/client, it is important to tell the person all of the following except
A. the purpose of giving the assessment.
*B. the history of the development of the instrument.
C. what the items in the instrument are like.
D. who will see the results and for what purpose.
When interpreting an inventory, all of the following are important except
A. checking to see if the client/student agrees with the results.
*B. indicating that the results of the inventory are the best sources of information.
C. asking about school work and experience that may confirm the results of the inventory.
D. suggesting what the student/client may do next in order to continue with planning.
A primary characteristic of informal assessment is that
A. the results are norm-referenced.
B. the techniques used have high reliability.
*C. it can be interesting and stimulate good discussion.
D. its results are standardly interpreted by all counselors.
An acceptable test-retest reliability coefficient is
If, on the Kuder Career Search interest inventory, for example, a person has a score at the 88th percentile on the scale called Outdoor, it means that
A. the person got 88% of the items right.
B. 10% of those in a norm group scored higher on Outdoor than this person.
C. the person has low interest in Outdoor activities.
*D. the person's interest in Outdoor activities is higher than 88% of those in a norm group.
At Step 4 of the career decision-making process, students or clients are most likely to need information about
A. financial aid.
D. majors and programs of study.
A counselor has the responsibility to
A. make good career choices for students.
*B. assist students to turn data into information that helps with decision making.
C. develop standards of quality for occupational information.
D. read and summarize information for students.
The website called O*Net is a replacement for the former Department of Labor publication
A. The Occupational Outlook Handbook.
B. The Guide to Occupational Exploration.
*C. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
D. The Classification of Instructional Programs.
The most comprehensive Department of Labor website for occupational information is called
A. Monster Board.
B. America's Talent Bank.
C. America's Job Bank.
Holland's typology is very useful in career guidance programs because
A. occupations can be organized by the six types.
B. individuals can find out their personal types by taking assessment.
C. majors and programs of study can be organized by the six types.
*D. all of the above are true.
The Bobby Standards identifies compliance of websites that are likely to be accessible to
A. those with auditory disability.
*B. those with visual disability.
C. those from non-English speaking cultures.
Which of the following is not a type of data typically provided by career centers?
*A. Benefits packages
B. Programs of study
D. Financial aid
ACT's World-of-Work Map
A. organizes occupations based on work with three dimensions -- data, people, and things.
B. shows 20 families of jobs.
*C. is based on Holland's typology.
D. is an integral part of CHOICES, a computer-based system.
All of the following are true for effective career centers except that they need to
A. have computers, software, and Internet connections.
B. be located in a central, easy-to-find place.
C. be organized in some meaningful way.
*D. be staffed by a certified counselor.
A person who habitually makes decisions by doing what others suggest is called a/an
*A. compliant decider.
B. intuitive decider.
C. planful decider.
D. fatalistic decider.
Of the various types of deciders described by Dinklage, the type most likely to have the easiest time making a vocational choice is the
The purpose in following a planful process of decision making is to
A. assure that the consequences are good.
*B. increase the probability of achieving good outcomes..
C. get to a choice more quickly.
D. give someone else the responsibility for your decisions.
Several websites that are particularly useful for career planning and information have been developed by the
A. Bush administration.
B. Department of Education.
*C. Department of Labor.
D. Department of Human Services.
The most difficult part of helping people make a vocational choice or change is
A. interpreting the assessment you give them.
B. finding good sources of career information.
*C. helping them process the data and make a choice.
D. dealing with their lack of motivation.
When choosing a system for organizing occupations, it is better for guidance purposes if
A. the system includes all 13,000 occupations.
B. occupations are divided by industries.
C. occupations are divided by level of job demand.
*D. there is a way to link what the person knows about self to occupational options.
The first computer-assisted career guidance systems were developed
A. in the 50's.
*B. in the 60's.
C. in the 70's.
D. after the widespread use of the Internet.
The early computer-assisted systems had all of the following except
A. a theoretical base.
B. a user record.
*C. full-motion video.
D. a decision-making process.
DISCOVER is a good example of a
A. career information system.
*B. career planning system.
C. virtual career center.
D. system supported by cybercounseling.
Career information systems that include state-specific data were encouraged by
A. the U.S. Department of Education.
C. the United States Department of Labor.
D. the University of Oregon.
All of the following are strong assets of a computer-based system except the capability to
A. provide instruction.
*B. identify whether the user can profit from its use.
C. administer and interpret inventories and tests.
D. keep a record of use.
Research about the use of computer-based systems indicates that
A. there is no need for counselor assistance in addition to computer use.
B. the use of computer-based systems is actually harmful to clients.
*C. the best gains are made by a client when technology and counselor support are combined.
D. they are much more effective with males than with females.
One of the primary ethical issues with cybercounseling is
*A. security of communication.
B. its cost.
C. that it can take place 24/7.
D. lack of eye contact.
The primary player(s) in setting ethical guidelines for cybercounseling is/are the
A. American Counseling Association.
B. National Career Development Association.
C. National Board for Certified Counselors.
*D. the three organizations above.
Which of the following describes a career planning tool, created by the client that they develop and maintain over time?
C. assessment system.
The term crosswalking refers to
A. updating databases.
*B. linking related databases.
C. accessing databases.
D. exporting databases.
All of the following are characteristics of career information systems except that they typically
A. offer multiple, extensive databases.
B. provide labor market information.
C. store a user record.
*D. are not theory-based.
One way in which high touch can be added to high tech while serving multiple students is
*A. group counseling.
B. one-to-one counseling.
C. assignment of websites.
D. classroom instruction.
Disadvantages to use of the Internet to provide career planning assistance include all of the following except that
A. access and operation can be slow.
B. bandwidth and other technical concerns diminish the effectiveness of audio and video
*C. databases can be updated more frequently.
D. the Internet is not a secure environment.
All of the following are characteristics of career planning systems except that they typically include
A. online assessment or entry of scores from offline assessment.
B. monitoring of the user's progress through the system. C. a strong theory base.
*D. no searchable databases.
When selecting a computer-based system, counselors and their administrators should consider the
A. theoretical base, if any, of the system.
B. quality and comprehensiveness of the databases.
C. presence of online inventories.
*D. all of the above.
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