BIOLOGY Chapter 1

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following would be the most reasonable testable prediction for the hypothesis: "All birds can fly"?
answer
Examine the list of all known species of birds and determine if any cannot fly.
question
Assume you hear males of a particular species of bird calling in their natural environment and question why they call. You design the follow experiment to try to answer your question. You cage one male individual and record his calling rate in response to four treatments. You vary the sex and species of the birds that your male subject could see. Your treatments are: no birds of the same species; 10 male birds of the same species; 10 female birds of the same species; 5 male and 5 female birds of the same species. The results of the experiment show that the rate at which the male subject called is the same across all four treatments.
answer
Males of your species call at a rate that is independent of the sex composition of the audience.
question
If the results of experimentation support a particular hypothesis, then:
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new and more specific testable predictions should be made to refine a hypothesis.
question
If your hypothesis is "Eyewitness testimony is always accurate," which of the following is a reasonable testable prediction?
answer
E a. Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented wearing different styles of clothing or the same style of clothing. b. Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented one at a time or all at the same time. c. Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented in a police line-up or at the scene of the crime. d. Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented in person or in photographs. e. All of the above are reasonable testable predictions for this hypothesis.
question
During an experiment to determine if people with more symmetrical body features have a lower incidence of disease, a researcher first measures the length of several bones in the subject's hands and arms. The device used to measure length does not display a readout of the measurement taken. Instead, a wire connects the measuring device to a computer that records the data. The computer monitor is kept out of sight of the subject and the researcher. Why is such an elaborate device used?
answer
So that the measurements are not biased by the researcher.
question
The purpose of the experimentation phase of the scientific method is to:
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gather evidence to support or reject a hypothesis.
question
Which of the following qualifies as a randomized, double-blind, controlled experimental study?
answer
50 men and women of various ages are given a candy bar with real sugar; 50 men and women of various ages are given a candy bar with artificial sweetener; 50 men and women of various ages get no candy bar; the people are then observed for signs of sleepiness; neither the scientist nor the observer nor the subjects know what type of candy bar was eaten, if any.
question
If your hypothesis is "Hair that is shaved grows back coarser and darker," what is your null hypothesis?
answer
There is no difference in the coarseness or color of hair that is shaved relative to hair that is not shaved.
question
Drug companies sometimes hire independent research laboratories to evaluate whether a drug they've discovered is effective or not in treating an illness. Companies MOST LIKELY do this to:
answer
demonstrate that the scientists conducting the trial are not biased in concluding that the drug is effective.
question
Why would a scientist choose to state their hypothesis as a null hypothesis?
answer
E a. Because even if strongly supported, a hypothesis can always be disproved. b. Because a hypothesis can only be strongly supported, never proven. c. Because only a single observation rejecting the null hypothesis is needed to disprove it. d. Because it is easier to disprove than prove things in science. e. All of the above are reasons for stating a null hypothesis.
question
A relationship that has been established based on a large amount of observational and experimental data is:
answer
a theory.
question
The pie charts above are related to the following analysis: In 2001, the journal Behavioral Ecology changed its policy for reviewing manuscripts submitted for publication. They changed their policy from a single-blind to a double-blind process. In an analysis of papers published between 1997 and 2005, it turned out that after 2001, when the double-blind policy took effect, there was a significant increase in the number of published papers in which the first author was a female. What does the "whole pie" represent?
answer
all of the papers published in the journal Behavioral Ecology
question
Iridology is a medical technique where practitioners can diagnose health problems by studying changes in the irises of a patient's eyes. Which of the following statements, if true, would suggest that iridology is a pseudoscience?
answer
The irises of people remain unchanged throughout life.
question
By 1796 it had been observed that milk maids who had been exposed to cowpox did not succumb to the deadly plague of smallpox that was ravishing both Europe and Britain. From this observation, Edward Jenner was able to construct the world's first successful vaccine. Which of the following statements best fits Jenner's hypothesis that led him to his creation of the vaccine?
answer
If exposure to cowpox gives immunity to smallpox in milkmaids, then exposure to cowpox should give immunity to smallpox in other individuals as well.
question
To be useful in the scientific method, an observation must be:
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measurable.
question
In the steps of the scientific method, what is the process where a scientist writes down tentative explanations or statements about what he/she expects might happen under certain conditions?
answer
hypotheses formation
question
The proposed explanation for a phenomenon is BEST described as:
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a hypothesis.
question
Statistical methods make it possible to:
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determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance.
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Statistics are used by scientists mainly to determine:
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whether differences in results between control and treatment groups is significant and important.
question
In 1998, the prestigious medical journal, The Lancet, reported that 12 children in England who received the vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) exhibited symptoms of autism soon after the vaccination. Which of the following, if true, would cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and the development of autism?
answer
D a. Later studies of hundreds of thousands of children in Denmark found no statistical difference in the incidence of autism among children who were vaccinated and children who were not. b. A later study in Japan showed that after the use of the MMR vaccine was stopped, the incidence of autism continued to increase. c. The original English sample was selected rather than randomized. d. All of the above cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and the development of autism. e. Only a and c cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and the development of autism.