Biology- Biochemistry

25 July 2022
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question
Starch falls in what category? A.) Carbs B.) Proteins C.) Lipids D.) Nucleic acids
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A.) Carbs
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Lactase falls in what category? A.) Carbs B.) Proteins C.) Lipids D.) Nucleic acids
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B.) Proteins
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DNA falls in what category? A.) Carbs B.) Proteins C.) Lipids D.) Nucleic acids
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D.) Nucleic acids
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Cholesterol falls in what category? A.) Carbs B.) Proteins C.) Lipids D.) Nucleic acids
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C.) Lipids
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COOH functional group is know as a..?
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Carboxylic acid
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Where is glycogen stored?
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The liver and muscle of animals.
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Glycogen is a monosaccaride, disaccaride, or a polysaccaride?
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Polysaccaride
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When glycogen is converted into glucose, what process does it go through?
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Hydrolysis
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What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?
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Glucose
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Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
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Cellulose
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The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.
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none of them dissolves in water
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Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____. A.) form dietary fiber B.) form membrane bilayers C.) act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication D.) store genetic information
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C.) act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication
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Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein.
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amino and carboxyl groups ... R group
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When a peptide bond forms between the amino and carboxyl groups, what process does it go through?
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Dehydration synthesis
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A hydrophobic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein?
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On the inside of the folded chain, away from water
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T/F: Hydrophobic R groups are nonpolar.
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True
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DNA carries the instructions for building _____, and these instructions are found in informational units called _____.
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polypeptides ... genes
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Citric acid makes lemons taste sour. Which of the following is a functional group that would cause a molecule such as citric acid to be acidic?
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Carboxyl
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Which of these is found in amines? A.) R-OH B.) R-COOH C.) R-NH2 D.) R-COH
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C.) R-NH2
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What is the process by which cells link monomers together to form polymers?
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Dehydration reaction
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In a hydrolysis reaction, _____. In this process, water is _____.
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a polymer breaks up to form monomers ... consumed
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Besides water, most of the mass of a typical cell is present in the form of one of these four categories of macromolecules: _____.
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proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
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Lactose is a disaccharide (two monosaccharides joined together). To metabolize lactose, individuals require an enzyme known as lactase. What is true about this reaction? A.) The reaction causes reactants to be formed. B.) The reaction dehydrates the sugar. C.) The reaction hydrolyzes the sugar. D.) The reaction causes bloating in individuals who have the enzyme.
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C.) The reaction hydrolyzes the sugar.
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Which of the following molecules is a carbohydrate? A.) C50 H100 O50 B.) C51 H98 O6 C.) C22 H49 O10N5 D.) C45 H84 O8P4
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A.) C50 H100 O50
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Carbohydrates are mainly used in our bodies _____.
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as fuel
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Two monosaccharides
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A disaccharide
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Another function of carbohydrates (as a class)
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Structural Support
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The most common disaccharide
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Sucrose
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Glucose is the direct breakdown product of what?
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Starch
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Cellulose is a _____ made of many _____.
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polymer ... glucose molecules
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Generally, animals cannot digest the linkages between the glucose molecules in cellulose. How then do cows get enough nutrients from eating grass? A.) Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose. B.) They have to eat a lot of grass. C.) Cows make an enzyme in their saliva that hydrolyzes cellulose. D.) Cows and other herbivores are exceptions and make some cellulose-digesting enzymes in their digestive tracts.
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A.) Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose.
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In what polysaccharide form do plants store sugar to be available later for energy?
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Starch
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The complex carbohydrate that you are most likely to have eaten recently is _____.
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Starch
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A polysaccharide that we use for storing energy in our muscles and livers is _____.
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Glycogen
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Which of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract with the least digestion? A.) sugar (in the dressing) B.) oil (in the dressing) C.) starch (in the croutons) D.) cellulose (in the lettuce)
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D.) cellulose (in the lettuce)
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A glucose molecule is to starch as _____.
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a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid (Nucleotides are the monomers that make nucleic acids, just as glucose is the monosaccharide from which starch is constructed.)
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Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____.
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are not truly polymers (Lipids are not all made of identical monomers bonded together. Their association as a group is related to their behavior rather than their structure.)
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Which is the correct term for compounds that do not mix with water?
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Hydrophobic
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T/F: Saturated triglycerides have more hydrogens than unsaturated triglycerides.
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True
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A fatty acid containing at least two double bonds is called _____.
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unsaturated
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Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by _____.
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adding hydrogens
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Hydrogenated vegetable oils are more like animal fats than other plant oils. Because they (CONTAIN MORE OR FEWER DOUBLE BONDS) than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease.
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Fewer
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The lipids that form the main structural component of cell membranes are _____.
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Phospholipids
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Cholesterol belongs to which class of molecules?
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Lipids
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Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice, especially in adolescents?
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Anabolic steroids can prevent bone growth.
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The ovalbumin in egg white can be classified as which type of protein?
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Storage
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How many different kinds of amino acids are there in most proteins?
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20
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Protein molecules are polymers of _____.
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amino acid molecules
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T/F: -NH2 is an amino group.
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True
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The peptide bond is _____.
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The covalent bond joining two amino acids.
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To what does the term polypeptide specifically refer?
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Amino acids linked by dehydration synthesis
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Which structure would be affected when a protein is denatured?
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Tertiary structure
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Enzyme molecules require a specific shape to perform their catalytic function. What might alter the protein shape?
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Changing the concentration of salt in the environment
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The "primary structure" of a protein refers to _____.
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the number and sequence of amino acids
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The alpha helix and pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure?
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secondary structure
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The overall three-dimensional shape of a single polypeptide is called the _____.
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tertiary structure
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Which level of the protein structure involves two or more polypeptide chains?
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Quaternary
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Collagen is found in connective tissue, which is a structural component of bones, tendons, and ligament. Collagen has great strength because of its _____ structure.
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Quaternary
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Which of the following do nucleic acids and proteins have in common?
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They are large polymers.
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How does DNA differ from RNA?
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RNA contains ribose, DNA does not.
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A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____.
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DNA
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What is a statement that helps most to explain why life is based on carbon compounds?
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C-C bonds are as strong as C-O bonds.
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When molecules are mirror images, they're ________.
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enantiomers
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Carbonyl group?
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C=O
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Hydroxyl group?
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HO
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T/F: Aldehydes, but not ketones, have H bound to C=O.
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True
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In a basic solution, COOH will release what?
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H+
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Amino groups ... A.) act as bases in water. B.) contain nitrogen atoms. C.) occur in proteins. D.) Just two of the preceding answers are true. E.) (a), (b), and (c).
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E.) (a), (b), and (c).
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A phosphate group contains _________ oxygen atoms.
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4
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Which functional group has the most different ionized forms?
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Phosphate
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A functional group on a molecule in solution carries two H atoms at pH 9 and three H atoms at pH 3. The functional group is probably. . .
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amino
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Non-ionized carboxyl groups cause a molecule to act as an acid because they ...
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donate H+ ions to water
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Polymers are always made up of _______.
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monomers
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The organic molecule called DNA is an example of ....
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a polymer made of nucleotides.
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Enantiomer
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Isomer molecules that are mirror images
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Geometric isomers are molecules that _____.
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differ in the arrangement of their atoms about a double bond
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Isomers
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Compounds that have the same molecular formulas but different three-dimensional structures.
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Compounds that have _____ in it are said to be organic.
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carbon
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Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to _____ as _____ is to base.
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acid ... amino
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Although the structures of the functional groups important to life vary in chemical structure, they share one thing in common: They _____.
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all are hydrophilic and increase the organic compound's water solubility