APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 28 Vocab

26 August 2022
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(Henry Demarest) Lloyd
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Journalist who was notable for, pre-1900, attacking the Standard Oil Company with his book "Wealth Against Commonwealth"
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(Thorstein) Veblen
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Famous sociologist/economist. Wrote "The Theory of the Leisure Class".
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(Jacob) Riis
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A Muckraker, this man is famous for using photography to document the incredibly poor conditions of many impoverished communities in the early 20th century. Wrote "How the Other Half Lives".
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(Theodore) Dreiser
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Among the more prominent "social novelists", this man is famous for writing "Sister Carrie"
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muckrakers
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Sensationalist journalists in the 20th century who used their public influence to reveal corporate corruption
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(Lincoln) Steffens
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A famous Muckraker, this man published "The Shame of the Cities" in "McClure's" Magazine, an article exposing corrupt alliances between corporations and local governments
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(Ida) Tarbell
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A famous Muckraker, this woman published a devastating but factual exposé about the Standard Oil Company
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initiative
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Progressive proposal to allow voters to bypass state legislatures and propose legislation themselves
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referendum
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the proposed system of placing to-be-passed laws on ballots, allowing the people to vote on them
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recall
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essentially a form of impeachment; the name for giving voters the ability to remove from office disloyal or incompetent officials
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17th Amendment (1913)
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This amendment allowed for the direct election of senators
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(Robert) La Follette
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Progressive Republican Governor of Wisconsin, this man wrested control from the corporations and gave it back to the people
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Wisconsin model
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A system that describes an individual's social mobility.
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Muller v. Oregon (1908)
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Case that upheld protective legislation on the grounds of women's supposed physical weakness
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(Louis) Brandeis
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The first Jewish man to be appointed to the Supreme Court, this man is notable for his earlier influence in the case Muller v. Oregon and for writing "Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It".
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Lochner v. New York (1905)
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A setback for progressivists, it was ruled in this case that a law enforcing a 10-hour work day for bakers was unconstitutional.
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Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911)
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A horrific incident involving a fire that erupted in a locked factory, killing dozens. This case had the effect of increasing government regulation of factory safety conditions.
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pacifism
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The belief that peace is always the best answer to a given situation.
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(Jane) Addams
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A prominent progressivist woman, notable for her establishment of the Hull House in Chicago. She was a strong promoter for the advancement of women's rights and the reduction of child labor.
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Woman's Christian Temperance Union
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A woman's organization devoted to the prohibition movement.
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(Theodore) Roosevelt
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President of the United States from 1901-1909, this man with a mythic reputation was notable for his corollary of the Monroe Doctrine and for being the first real progressivist president.
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Square Deal
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the stated policy of President Theodore Roosevelt, originally promising fairness in all dealings with labor and management and later extended to include other groups.
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Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
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A strike organized by the United Mine Workers of America that took place in Pennsylvania. Notable for Roosevelt's forcing of the coal corporations to cooperate with the strikers.
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Department of Commerce and Labor
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Department established by Roosevelt to deal with domestic economic affairs. Later split into two departments for better management.
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Elkins Act (1903)
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strengthened the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by imposing heavy fines on railroads offering rebates and on the shippers accepting them
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Hepburn Act (1906)
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restricted railroad "free passes" and expanded the Interstate Commerce Commission to include in its powers the prosecution of express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. For the first time gave the ICC that ability to nullify existing rates and set maximum rates.
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US v. Northern Security Company (1904)
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A legal case that resulted in the dissolution of the trust between the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific Railroads. Also led to the dissolution of the company from which the case gets its name.
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(William Howard) Taft
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Successor of Roosevelt; Different views than Teddy, but still a progressivist; Passed Sixteenth Amendment
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trustbuster
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informal name given to T. Roosevelt and W. H. Taft for their devotion to dissolving corrupt, monopolistic trusts.
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US Steel
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The largest steel company of the US, created by J.P. Morgan by merging Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel and several other steel companies together; at the time, the largest corporation in existence.
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(Upton) Sinclair
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author of The Jungle that inspired pro-consumer federal laws regulating meat, food, and drugs
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The Jungle (1906)
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A book written by Upton Sinclair that exposed the horrendous and downright gross conditions of the food-packaging industry of the time
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Meat Inspection Act (1906)
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An act passed which allowed the Federal Government to inspect and ensure the quality of meat products in the United States.
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Pure Food and Drug Inspection Act (1906)
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An act which called for the regulation of consumer products to prevent false advertising.
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Desert Land Act (1877)
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An act which was passed to encourage the development of agriculture in the more arid locations of the Western United States.
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national parks
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A series of public reserves, established for conservationist purposes.
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(John) Muir
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A rather eccentric man who is notable for his push for conservationism on a national level.
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conservationists
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Those who believe that the preservation of forests and other such places is of utmost importance.
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(Gifford) Pinchot
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a notable conservationist who headed the federal Division of Forestry.
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Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)
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An act which took federal funds that were collected from national land sales and put them to use funding large-scale irrigation projects.
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Sierra Club (est. 1892)
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Established in the late 19th century, this conservationist club was devoted to the preservation of nature's beauty.
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Roosevelt Panic of 1907
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A sudden economic downturn which was blamed on the president's reckless economic policies.
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(Eugene V.) Debs
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Very influential pro-labor man; Led the Pullman Railroad Strike; Much-later he, under the banner of the Socialist Party, ran for the presidency -- while locked in prison.
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Dollar Diplomacy
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President Taft's policy of using economic interests as an inconspicuous way to bind other nations to the US
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Manchurian Railway crisis
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A staged event involving railroads that was used by Japan as a pretext for invading Chinese Manchuria.
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Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1913)
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Tariff passed by the Taft Administration whose purpose was to lower tariffs, a goal that it miserably failed to achieve.