AP Psychology Personality

9 July 2024
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Personality
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individual's unique patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior that persist over time; unique, stable, enduring
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psychodynamic theories
psychodynamic theories
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theories that behavior results from the psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness; linked by Freud
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unconscious
unconscious
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prominent in Freudian theory; ideas, thoughts, feelings of which we are not aware normally; basis of psychoanalysis
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psychoanalysis
psychoanalysis
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Freud's theory of personality and form of therapy; based on bringing the conscious unconscious; uses techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and transference
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id
id
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Freudian; unconscious urges and desires; selfish needs; operates on pleasure principle-any means to satisfy need; which fulfillment-mental object/situation to relieve the feeling
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libido
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Freudian idea that energy is from sexual instinct; Jungian idea that energy is everything
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fixation
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Freudian; partial or complete halt at one of the psychosexual stages of development; when individual fails to complete the psychosexual task successfully; can be expressed as personality traits
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oral stage
oral stage
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Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
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anal stage
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Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 18 months-3 years; focus: anus-retention/expulsion of species; task: to successfully learned toilet training; conflict: id derives pleasure from retention/expulsion, whereas ego and superego represents society the practical/societal pressures to control bodily functions; if child fails to complete the task,(s)he becomes fixated; fixations-anal expulsion-messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant; anal-retentive-neat, precise, orderly, stingy, obstinate, meticulous, passive-aggressive
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phallic stage
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Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; focus: genitals; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power, dad "castrates" sign (removes power), must prove self, dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
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archetypes
archetypes
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Jung; thought forms or collective memories passed down from generation to generation and stored in the collective unconscious; ancient/archaic images derived from the collective unconscious; examples-mother Earth, father Time, hero, wise old man, trickster, the Joker
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persona
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Jung; our public self; the mask we wear to project that part of our personality outward towards others
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Anima
Anima
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Jung; female archetype as expressed in a man; masculine side of a woman; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from women's experiences with men which create the concept of men, appears in dreams, visions, fantasies
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Animus
Animus
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Jung; male archetype as expressed in a woman; feminine side of man; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from men's experiences with women which combine into the concept of women; shows as an image of feelings/mood
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Extrovert
Extrovert
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aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; taken at the interest in the world and events around them, turn attention toward external world; energy is gained from outside or external sources; everyone contains both, one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
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Anxiety
Anxiety
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powerful motivating force; individuals reaction to real/imagine dangers; Freud says anxiety emerges from sexual conflicts; Horney says that comes because children depend on adults for survival, one defenses are threatened anxiety occurs
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humanistic personality theory
humanistic personality theory
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normally associated with Maslow and Rogers; any personality theory that emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts); stresses people to potential for growth and change as people experience life
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personality traits
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dimensions or characteristics that account for personality differences; examples-dependency, anxiety, sociability; Allport created a list of thousands
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factor analysis
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Cattell (1965); statistical technique; find that 200 traits tend to cluster in groups (traits are from Allport's/Odbert's lists)
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cognitive-social learning theory
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behavior is a product of the interaction of cognitive (thinking), learning, and past experiences; unique to each person
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16 personality factor questionnaire
16 personality factor questionnaire
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Cattell; personality boils down to 16 basic dimensions of personality; questionnaire used in universities and businesses for personnel selection and research
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locus of control
locus of control
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Rotter; cognitive strategies; used to evaluate situations, reinforcement comes in two ways: internal-you control your fate, external-chance & fate, behavior of others determine destiny
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self-efficacy
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Bandura; cognitive social learning theory; expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
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objective tests
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personality test that is administered and scored in a standard way; personality inventory; yes/no are typical answers; most widely used; drawbacks-self-report, familiarity with other tests may affect individuals answers; examples-16 PF, and MBTI, MMPI(2), and NEO-PI-r
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neurotic trends
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Horney; neuroses = anxiety; 3 strategies for coping with neuroses created by unmet needs: a) moving towards people-submission-given in, having a dominant partner; be) moving against people-aggression-anger, violence, altercation; see) moving away from people-detachment-withdrawal, isolation
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pleasure principle
pleasure principle
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Freud; id process by which the id seeks immediate gratification by any means necessary to receive pleasure and avoid pain; done in two ways-which fulfillment (day dream/dreams), ego processes
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ego
ego
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Freud; part of the personality that mediates between the selfishness of the id and the conscientiousness of the superego; uses the reality principle to satisfy id without harming superego's ideals; "self"
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reality principle
reality principle
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Freud; ego process; means by which the ego satisfies the id without compromising the value/morals are the superego
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super ego
super ego
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Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
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ego ideal
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Freud; ideal of perfection; part of the superego that consists of the standards of what you would like to be
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Oedipus/Electra complex
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Freud, conflict of psychosexual stages; phallic stage, ages 3-6; consists of a transition in the phallic stage; child competes the same-sex parent were opposite gender parent's attention; can manifest in later personality-male: castration anxiety, dominant, tries to prove self, marries "mom"; female: penis envy, submissive, dates older men (like dad)
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Latency period
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Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 6-12; sexual drive lies dormant, focuses on social nature and development of friendships, seen as period of repression (as sexual drives), all libido energy is poured into school and sports
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genital stage
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Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 12+; focus: genitals; task: intimate and sexual relationships; conflict: if fixated in previous stages, it may reappear
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personal unconscious
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Jung; one of two levels; contains individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas; can be triggered; similar to Freud's unconscious and preconscious
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collective unconscious
collective unconscious
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Jung; memories/behavior patterns inherited from past generations; shared by all humans; deep roots in the ancestral past an entire species; manifest as archetypes, myths, and legends
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introvert
introvert
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aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; caught up in personal world, unsociable, lack confidence in dealing with people; energy is gained from within self, long exposure to people is draining; one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
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rational individuals
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Jung; further division of people who regulate actions by thinking and feeling; aspect used in MBTI
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irrational individuals
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Jung; further division of people who base actions on perceptions, includes senses/sensation or unconscious/intuition; aspect used in MBTI
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compensation
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Adler; a person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness: inferiority complex or superiority complex
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inferiority complex
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Adler; fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional and social paralysis
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conditional positive regard
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Rogers; experience that love, acceptance, respect, and warmth, with the condition (or price tag); example: mommy doesn't love girls who do..., if you love me then..., that's nice but wouldn't you rather...
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big five
big five
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type of trait theory; five basic traits: extroversion (where you draw energy from), conscientiousness (dependability), agree ability (how you get along with others), emotional stability (self-explanatory), openness (culture, new experiences)
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actualizing tendency
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Rogers; drive of individual to reach the biological potential or blueprint; capability of what someone can the calm
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self-actualizing tendency
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Rogers; drive of an individual to achieve his/her self-concept or self image; living up to the image of yourself that you create
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MMPI
MMPI
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
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expectancies
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Bandura; personal references; how people write their behavior in a variety of situations to help guide behavior in the future
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projective tests
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personality tests that consists of a simple ambiguous stimuli to elicit a number of responses; advantages-flexible, can take in a relaxed atmosphere, but this event may not know the purpose of the test (less likely to be of eight); examples-Rorschach, Rotter sentence completion test, TAT
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Rorschach test
Rorschach test
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projective personality test; Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist; inkblot test; person specifies what they see in each blot; and MMPI 2 is more valid
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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
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projective personality test; developed at Harvard by Murray and Associates; 20 cards with figures in ambiguous situations; person is asked to interpret the card (tell what is happening, leading up to and following the image); examined for content, language, consistency, organization, and originality
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unconditional positive regard
unconditional positive regard
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Rogers; experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and mob regardless of their feelings, attitudes and behaviors; example: I may not agree with what you do, but I love you can matter what