AP Psych Chapter 12 Siggy Questions

7 September 2022
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question
Motivation is best understood as a state that: A) reduces a drive. B) aims at satisfying a biological need. C) energizes an organism to act. D) energizes and directs behavior.
answer
D) energizes and directs behavior.
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One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it: A) places too much emphasis on environmental factors. B) focuses on cognitive aspects of motivation. C) applies only to animal behavior. D) does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them.
answer
D) does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them.
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Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as: A) needs. B) drives. C) instincts. D) incentives
answer
C) instincts.
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Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize ________ factors in motivation. A) environmental B) cognitive C) psychological D) biological
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D) biological
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Which of the following is not an example of homeostasis? A) perspiring in order to restore normal body temperature B) feeling hungry and eating to restore the level of blood glucose to normal C) feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food D) All of the above are examples of homeostasis
answer
C) feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food
question
Which of the following is a difference between a drive and a need? A) Needs are learned; drives are inherited. B) Needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states. C) Drives are generally stronger than needs. D) Needs are generally stronger than drives
answer
B) Needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states.
question
Homeostasis refers to: A) the tendency to maintain a steady internal state. B) the tendency to seek external incentives for behavior. C) the setting of the body's "weight thermostat." D) a theory of the development of sexual orientation
answer
A) the tendency to maintain a steady internal state.
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One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that: A) because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction. B) it fails to explain any human motivation. C) it cannot account for homeostasis. D) it does not explain the hunger drive.
answer
A) because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction.
question
Which of the following is inconsistent with the drive-reduction theory of motivation? A) When body temperature drops below 98.6Ā° Fahrenheit, blood vessels constrict to conserve warmth. B) A person is driven to seek a drink when his or her cellular water level drops below its optimum point. C) Monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward. D) A person becomes hungry when body weight falls below its biological set point.
answer
C) Monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward.
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Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary's behavior according to: A) incentives. B) achievement motivation. C) drive-reduction theory. D) Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
answer
C) drive-reduction theory.
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For two weeks, Orlando has been on a hunger strike in order to protest his country's involvement in what he perceives as an immoral war. Orlando's willingness to starve himself in order to make a political statement conflicts with the theory of motivation advanced by: A) Kinsey. B) Murray. C) Keys. D) Maslow.
answer
D) Maslow.
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Beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following represents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by Maslow? A) safety; physiological; esteem; belongingness and love; self-fulfillment B) safety; physiological; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment C) physiological; safety; esteem; belongingness and love; self-fulfillment D) physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment
answer
D) physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment
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According to Maslow's theory: A) the most basic motives are based on physiological needs. B) needs are satisfied in a specified order. C) the highest motives relate to self-actualization. D) all of the above are true.
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D) all of the above are true.
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In his study of men on a semistarvation diet, Keys found that: A) the metabolic rate of the subjects increased. B) the subjects eventually lost interest in food. C) the subjects became obsessed with food. D) the subjects' behavior directly contradicted predictions made by Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
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C) the subjects became obsessed with food.
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Increases in insulin will: A) lower blood sugar and trigger hunger. B) raise blood sugar and trigger hunger. C) lower blood sugar and trigger satiety. D) raise blood sugar and trigger satiety
answer
A) lower blood sugar and trigger hunger
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The brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating is the: A) lateral hypothalamus. B) ventromedial hypothalamus. C) lateral thalamus. D) ventromedial thalamus
answer
B) ventromedial hypothalamus.
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Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage, while the underweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage. A) hippocampus; amygdala B) amygdala; hippocampus C) lateral hypothalamus; ventromedial hypothalamus D) ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus
answer
D) ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus
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Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will cause an animal to: A) begin eating. B) stop eating. C) become obese. D) begin copulating
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A) begin eating.
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In animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in ________, whereas destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in ________. A) overeating; loss of hunger B) loss of hunger; overeating C) an elevated set point; a lowered set point D) increased thirst; loss of thirst
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B) loss of hunger; overeating
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I am a protein produced by fat cells and monitored by the hypothalamus. When in abundance, I cause the brain to increase metabolism. What am I? A) PYY B) ghrelin C) orexin D) leptin
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D) leptin
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Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can't seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty? A) Her body has a very low set point. B) Her pre-diet weight was near her body's set point. C) Her weight problem is actually caused by an underlying eating disorder. D) Lucille is an "external."
answer
B) Her pre-diet weight was near her body's set point.
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Randy, who has been under a lot of stress lately, has intense cravings for sugary junk foods, which tend to make him feel more relaxed. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for his craving? A) Randy feels that he deserves to pamper himself with sweets because of the stress he is under. B) The extra sugar gives Randy the energy he needs to cope with the demands of daily life. C) Carbohydrates boost levels of serotonin, which has a calming effect. D) The extra sugar tends to lower blood insulin level, which promotes relaxation
answer
C) Carbohydrates boost levels of serotonin, which has a calming effect.
question
Ali's parents have tried hard to minimize their son's exposure to sweet, fattening foods. If Ali has the occasion to taste sweet foods in the future, which of the following is likely: A) He will have a strong aversion to such foods. B) He will have a neutral reaction to sweet foods. C) He will display a preference for sweet tastes. D) It is impossible to predict Ali's reaction.
answer
C) He will display a preference for sweet tastes.
question
The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes: A) is more common in children than in adults. B) protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances. C) may be an early warning sign of an eating disorder. D) only grows stronger with repeated exposure to those tastes.
answer
B) protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances.
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Bulimia nervosa involves: A) binging. B) purging. C) dramatic weight loss. D) a. and b
answer
D) a. and b
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Which of the following is not typical of both anorexia and bulimia? A) far more frequent occurrence in women than in men B) preoccupation with food and fear of being overweight C) weight significantly and noticeably outside normal ranges D) low self-esteem and feelings of depression
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C) weight significantly and noticeably outside normal ranges
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Of the following individuals, who might be most prone to developing an eating disorder? A) Jason, an adolescent boy who is somewhat overweight and is unpopular with his peers B) Jennifer, a teenage girl who has a poor self-image and a fear of not being able to live up to her parents' high standards C) Susan, a 35-year-old woman who is a "workaholic" and devotes most of her energies to her high-pressured career D) Bill, a 40-year-old man who has had problems with alcoholism and is seriously depressed after losing his job of 20 years
answer
B) Jennifer, a teenage girl who has a poor self-image and a fear of not being able to live up to her parents' high standards
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Kathy has been undergoing treatment for bulimia. There is an above-average probability that one or more members of Kathy's family have a problem with: A) high achievement. B) overprotection. C) alcoholism. D) all of the above.
answer
C) alcoholism.
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Women in ________ rate their body ideals closest to their actual shape. A) Western cultures B) countries such as Africa, where thinness can signal poverty, C) countries such as India, where thinness is not idealized, D) Australia, New Zealand, and England
answer
A) Western cultures
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Which of the following is true concerning eating disorders? A) Genetic factors may influence susceptibility. B) Cultural pressures for thinness strongly influence teenage girls. C) Family background is a significant factor. D) All of the above are true.
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D) All of the above are true.
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Although the cause of eating disorders is still unknown, proposed explanations focus on all of the following except: A) metabolic factors. B) genetic factors. C) family background factors. D) cultural factors.
answer
A) metabolic factors.
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Kinsey's studies of sexual behavior showed that: A) males enjoy sex more than females. B) females enjoy sex more than males. C) premarital sex is less common than is popularly believed. D) sexual behavior is enormously varied.
answer
D) sexual behavior is enormously varied.
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The correct order of the stages of Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle is: A) plateau; excitement; orgasm; resolution. B) excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution. C) excitement; orgasm; resolution; refractory. D) plateau; excitement; orgasm; refractory.
answer
B) excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution.
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According to Masters and Johnson, the sexual response of males is most likely to differ from that of females during: A) the excitement phase. B) the plateau phase. C) orgasm. D) the resolution phase.
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D) the resolution phase.
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Which of the following has been found to be most effective in treating sexual disorders? A) psychoanalysis. B) cognitive therapy. C) drug therapy. D) behavior therapy.
answer
D) behavior therapy.
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Castration of male rats results in: A) reduced testosterone and sexual interest. B) reduced testosterone, but no change in sexual interest. C) reduced estrogen and sexual interest. D) reduced estrogen, but no change in sexual interest
answer
A) reduced testosterone and sexual interest.
question
Hunger and sexual motivation are alike in that both are influenced by: A) internal physiological factors. B) external and imagined stimuli. C) cultural expectations. D) all of the above.
answer
D) all of the above.
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While viewing erotica, men and women differ in the activity levels of which brain area? A) anterior cingulated cortex B) amygdala C) occipital lobe D) temporal lobe
answer
B) amygdala
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Of the following parts of the world, teen intercourse rates are highest in: A) Western Europe. B) Canada. C) the United States. D) Asia.
answer
A) Western Europe.
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Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the high rate of unprotected sex among adolescents? A) alcohol use B) thrill-seeking C) mass media sexual norms D) ignorance
answer
B) thrill-seeking
question
Which of the following teens is most likely to delay the initiation of sex? A) Jack, who has below-average intelligence B) Jason, who is not religiously active C) Ron, who regularly volunteers his time in community service D) it is impossible to predict
answer
C) Ron, who regularly volunteers his time in community service
question
Sexual orientation refers to: A) a person's tendency to display behaviors typical of males or females. B) a person's sense of identity as a male or female. C) a person's enduring sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender. D) all of the above.
answer
C) a person's enduring sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender.
question
Which of the following is not true regarding sexual orientation? A) Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed. B) Most people accept their orientation. C) Men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's. D) Women, regardless of sexual orientation, respond to both female and male erotic stimuli.
answer
C) Men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's.
question
Summarizing his presentation on the origins of homosexuality, Dennis explains that the "fraternal birth-order effect" refers to the fact that: A) men who have younger brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay. B) men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay. C) women with older sisters are somewhat more likely to be gay. D) women with younger sisters are somewhat more likely to be gay.
answer
B) men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay.
question
Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is true? A) Homosexuals have abnormal hormone levels. B) As children, most homosexuals were molested by an adult homosexual. C) Homosexuals had a domineering opposite-sex parent. D) New research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological.
answer
D) New research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological.
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Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and: A) late sexual maturation. B) the age of an individual's first erotic experience. C) atypical prenatal hormones. D) early problems in relationships with parents.
answer
C) atypical prenatal hormones.
question
Exposure of a fetus to the hormones typical of females between ________ and ________ months after conception may predispose the developing human to become attracted to males. A) 1; 3 B) 2; 5 C) 4; 7 D) 6; 9
answer
B) 2; 5
question
It has been said that the body's major sex organ is the brain. With regard to sex education: A) transmission of value-free information about the wide range of sexual behaviors should be the primary focus of the educator. B) transmission of technical knowledge about the biological act should be the classroom focus, free from the personal values and attitudes of researchers, teachers, and students. C) the home, not the school, should be the focus of all instruction about reproductive behavior. D) people's attitudes, values, and morals cannot be separated from the biological aspects of sexuality.
answer
D) people's attitudes, values, and morals cannot be separated from the biological aspects of sexuality.
question
Summarizing her report on the need to belong, Rolanda states that: A) "Cooperation amongst our ancestors was uncommon." B) "Social bonding is not in our nature; it is a learned human trait." C) "Because bonding with others increased our ancestors' success at reproduction and survival, it became part of our biological nature." D) both a. and b. are true
answer
C) "Because bonding with others increased our ancestors' success at reproduction and survival, it became part of our biological nature."
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When asked what makes life meaningful, most people first mention: A) good health. B) challenging work. C) satisfying relationships. D) serving others.
answer
C) satisfying relationships.
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One research study found that having an e-mail go unanswered, and other forms of ostracism, elicit increased activity in the brain's: A) amygdala. B) frontal lobe. C) cerebellum. D) anterior cingulated cortex.
answer
D) anterior cingulated cortex.
question
Which of the following individuals would be characterized as experiencing "flow"? A) Sheila, who, despite viewing her work as merely a job, performs her work conscientiously B) Larry, who sees his work as an artist as a calling C) Darren, who views his present job as merely a stepping stone in his career D) Montal, who often becomes so immersed in his writing that he loses all sense of self and time
answer
D) Montal, who often becomes so immersed in his writing that he loses all sense of self and time
question
Dr. Iverson conducts research focusing on how management styles influence worker motivation. Dr. Iverson would most accurately be described as a(n): A) motivation psychologist. B) personnel psychologist. C) organizational psychologist. D) human factors psychologist.
answer
C) organizational psychologist.
question
Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the interviewer illusion? A) The fact that interviews reveal applicants' intentions but not necessarily their habitual behaviors. B) The tendency of interviewers to think that interview behavior only reflects applicants' enduring traits. C) The tendency of interviewers to more often follow the successful careers of applicants they hired rather than those who were not hired. D) The tendency of most interviewers to rely on unstructured rather than structured interviews.
answer
D) The tendency of most interviewers to rely on unstructured rather than structured interviews.
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Which of the following is not an aspect of Murray's definition of achievement motivation? A) the desire to master skills B) the desire for control C) the desire to gain approval D) the desire to attain a high standard
answer
C) the desire to gain approval
question
Because Alethea is very friendly and likable, her supervisor gives her a positive rating on her overall job performance. By generalizing from these specific traits to a biased overall evaluation, Alethea's supervisor has committed a: A) leniency error. B) severity error. C) halo error. D) recency error.
answer
C) halo error.
question
In order to predict future excellence in a young scholar, athlete, or artist, one would best examine the individual's: A) preparation and daily discipline. B) natural talent. C) peer group. D) home environment.
answer
A) preparation and daily discipline.
question
To increase employee productivity, industrial-organizational psychologists advise managers to: A) adopt a directive leadership style. B) adopt a democratic leadership style. C) instill competitiveness in each employee. D) deal with employees according to their individual motives.
answer
D) deal with employees according to their individual motives.
question
For as long as she has been the plant manager, Juanita has welcomed input from employees and has delegated authority. Bill, manages his department, with a more authoritarian, iron-fisted approach. Juanita's style is one of ________ leadership, whereas Bill's is one of ________ leadership. A) task; social B) social; task C) directive; democratic D) democratic; participative
answer
B) social; task
question
Rosa has been described as a "leader with a lot of charisma." An organizational psychologist would say that this means she: A) has a clear vision of her leadership goals. B) is able to communicate her goals clearly and simply. C) is able to inspire others. D) possesses all of the above characteristics.
answer
D) possesses all of the above characteristics.