A&P II CHAPTER 28 HW/QUIZ

25 July 2022
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question
How long is the secondary oocyte viable and capable of being fertilized after it is ovulated?
answer
12-24 hours
question
In the block to polyspermy, entry of the sperm's contents causes ________ levels in the oocyte's cytoplasm to rise, triggering the cortical reaction.
answer
calcium ion
question
Which of the following is the correct sequence of development from zygote to embryo?
answer
cleavage, morula, blastocyst, gastrula The product of initial cleavage is the morula, which eventually becomes the blastocyst. The blastocyst implants and becomes the gastrula.
question
Human chorionic gonadotropin helps to maintain the corpus luteum for the entire gestational period.
answer
False Human chorionic gonadotropin does feedback to the corpus luteum. However, hCG only maintains the corpus luteum for about the first 2 to 3 months of development.
question
Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?
answer
human chorionic gonadotropin
question
The decidua basalis is ________.
answer
the part of the endometrium that lies beneath the embryo
question
What cellular area shown in the figure secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
What cellular area shown in the figure secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
answer
syncytiotrophoblast Syncytiotrophoblast cells begin to secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) following implantation.
question
Which extra-embryonic membrane is formed from the trophoblast after implantation?
Which extra-embryonic membrane is formed from the trophoblast after implantation?
answer
chorion The chorion is the only one of the four extra-embryonic membranes formed from the trophoblast; the others form from the inner cell mass.
question
Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm forms the most body parts.
answer
True
question
In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the nonfunctional lungs is by way of the foramen ovale.
answer
True
question
Humans do not have a yolk sac associated with embryonic development.
answer
False
question
Which of the following is NOT a correct matching of a fetal structure with what it becomes at birth?
answer
ductus arteriosus-ligamentum teres
question
Derivatives of the mesoderm include ________.
answer
vertebrae and ribs
question
The first major event in organogenesis is ________.
answer
neurulation
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Cells of the ________ gather around the notochord and neural tube and produce the vertebra and rib at their associated level.
answer
sclerotome
question
What type of section of the developing embryo is seen in the figure and which side of the body is facing upward?
What type of section of the developing embryo is seen in the figure and which side of the body is facing upward?
answer
transverse (cross) section/posterior This is a transverse section. Somites form on either side of the neural tube on the posterior of the body.
question
Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?
Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?
answer
foramen ovale The foramen ovale is a direct passage through the interatrial septum, so blood may bypass the nonfunctional lungs. It closes at birth.
question
Which body system of a pregnant woman shows the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?
answer
the cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system has to increase its transport capabilities in order to supply the fetus with nutrients during development.
question
Teratogens may cause anatomical abnormalities in an embryo, but they do not cause anatomical abnormalities in a pregnant woman because ______.
answer
organogenesis does not occur in an adult Teratogens prevent the normal anatomical or physiological development of an organism.
question
A pregnant woman urinates more often than usual because the uterus compresses the bladder, her metabolic rate and blood volume are increased, and she must also dispose of fetal metabolic wastes.
answer
True
question
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.
answer
they undergo capacitation
question
Which embryonic structure produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
answer
the syncytiotrophoblast
question
Implantation begins six to seven days after ovulation.
answer
True
question
Shortly after implantation, ________.
answer
the trophoblast forms two distinct layers
question
Which of the choices below occurs if implantation is successful?
answer
The corpus luteum is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormone-producing functions.
question
A urine test reveals a positive result for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This indicates ________ was successful.
answer
implantation
question
Humans do not have a yolk sac associated with embryonic development.
answer
False
question
The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first breath. Which of the following is also true?
answer
The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.
question
Derivatives of the mesoderm include ________.
answer
vertebrae and ribs
question
Which of the following is NOT assessed as part of the Apgar score?
answer
temperature