AP HW CH 17

25 July 2022
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question
As one moves up in altitude, the atmospheric pressure decreases. In Vail, CO (altitude 8022 ft or 2445 m), the atmospheric pressure is approximately 570 mmHg. What would the partial pressure of oxygen be in Vail?
answer
120 mm Hg
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What causes the greatest change in thoracic volume during quiet inspiration?
answer
contraction of the diaphragm
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What is the respiration rate, in breaths per minute? Note that he has 5 breaths across 15 seconds.
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20
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What do you think happens to the levels of CO2 in exhaled air as breathing rate increases?
answer
They decrease.
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During normal ventilation, exhaled air has a CO2 concentration of 35 mmHg. What would you predict the value of the first exhalation would be after a prolonged breath hold?
answer
increased
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What is a function of the pleural fluid?
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to hold the lungs to the thoracic wall
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What did you predict what will happen if we suddenly put a hole in the barrel of the syringe. What happens to the inflated balloon?
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The balloon will collapse
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Conditioning of air by the respiratory tract has three purposes: warming, filtering, and which other component?
answer
humidifying
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What would the pressure of a gas become if its starting pressure was 6 mmHg in a volume of 30 L, and the volume decreased to 5 L?
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36 mmHg
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Which of the following correctly states the relationship known as Boyle's Law?
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P1V1 = P2V2
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The additional air that you can exhale after a normal exhale is the ________.
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expiratory reserve volume
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Which set of instructions would allow the measurement of inspiratory reserve volume on a spirometer?
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"Now, at the end of a quiet inspiration, take in as much additional air as you possibly can."
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What happens to intrapleural pressure during a pneumothorax?
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It becomes equal to atmospheric pressure.
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Which characteristic of the lungs is defined as the change in volume that results from a given force exerted?
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compliance
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Which is the best definition of anatomical dead space?
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the volume of the conducting system
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Which of the following descriptions accurately describes Boyle's law?
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The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.
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Which muscles, when contracted, would increase the volume of air in the thoracic cavity?
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diaphragm and external intercostals
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Which pressure is the result of the natural tendency of the lungs to decrease their size (because of elasticity) and the opposing tendency of the thoracic wall to pull outward and enlarge the lungs?
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intrapleural pressure
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During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?
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epinephrine
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If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?
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lungs will collapse
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The lower respiratory tract includes
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all of the bronchial branches, the lungs, and the trachea.
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Type II alveolar cells
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secrete a chemical known as surfactant.
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The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
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pharynx
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Air moves out of the lungs because
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the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
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In quiet breathing,
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inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
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If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled is his
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vital capacity.
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Part A Part complete Match the lung capacity with its description. A. total lung capacity B. inspiratory capacity C. vital capacity D. functional residual capacity the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal breath
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functional residual capacity
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The ability of a lung to recoil, or recover from stretch, is called
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elastance
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The volume of air moved in a single respiration is called the
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tidal volume.
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The respiratory rate times the tidal volume corrected for dead space is the
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alveolar ventilation rate.
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Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
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increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
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During inhalation,
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the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
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From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
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Alveoli
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Which statement is correct?
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In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
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After blood becomes oxygenated,
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it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
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Hemoglobin
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is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
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The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
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alveoli
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Surfactant
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helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing.
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Flow of air
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is directly proportional to a pressure gradient, and flow decreases as the resistance of the system increases