AP Human Geography Unit 5

5 July 2024
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AGRICULTURE
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The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
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SECOND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
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Time when human beings first domesticated animals and plants and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
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SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
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Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
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VEGITATIVE PLANTING
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Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
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SEED AGRICULTURE
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Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertilization.
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COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
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Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
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SHIFTING CULTIVATION
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A form of subsistance agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to the other; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
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CROP ROTATION
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The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to aviod exhausting the soil.
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SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE
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Another namec for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegitation and burning the debris.
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SWIDDEN
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A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
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INTENSIVE SUBSISTANCE AGRICULTURE
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A form of subsistance agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
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PADDY FIELD
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Field of paddy (wet rice)
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DOUBLE CROPPING
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Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
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PASTORAL NOMADISM
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A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
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TRANSHUMANCE
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The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and low land pastures.
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GREEN REVOLUTION
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Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
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AGRIBUSINESS
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Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations .
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PLANTATION
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A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
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TRUCK FARMING
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Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or the exchange of commodities
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DESERTIFICATION
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Degradition of land, especially in semiarid areas primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting animal grazing, and tree cutting.
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HUNTING AND GATHERING
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The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, nuts, and and other plants for sustenance
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FIRST AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
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The shuft from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
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INTERTILLAGE
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In shifting cultivation, spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field
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PASTORALISM
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A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
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BIOTECHNOLOGY
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A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
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GENETICALLY-MODIFIED FOODS
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Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a labratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictibility, and efficiency
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VON THUNEN MODEL
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A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
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THIRD AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
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Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms