AP Human Geography Chapter 3: Migration

13 June 2024
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Brain Drain
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the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge
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Chain Migration
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A migration process which depends on a small number of pioneers, who make the first moves to set up a new home in a new place. They send information back home, and this encourages further migration from the originating area.
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Circulation
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Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
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Diaspora
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the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland, or people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location
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Distance Decay
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The lessening in force of immigration increasing distance from the location of the origin country
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Emigration
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Migration from a location
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Immigration
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Migration to a location
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Forced Migration
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permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
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Voluntary Migration
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Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
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Gravity Model
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A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
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Guest Workers
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Workers who migrated to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe of North Africa, in search of higher paying jobs.
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Internal Migration
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Permanent movement within a particular country
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International Migration
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Permanent movement from one country to another
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Intervening Obstacle
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An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
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Intervening Opportunity
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The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
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Migration Transition
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Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
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Migration Stream
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A constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination.
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Migration Selectivity
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the maximum limit on the number of people who could immigrate to a country during a one-year period
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Mobility
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All types of movement from one location to another
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Net Migration
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The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
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Periodic Movements
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temporary, recurrent relocation. Example is college, military
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Push Factors
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A factor that induces people to leave old residences
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Pull Factors
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A Factor that induces people to move to a new location
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Ravenstein's Laws
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1. Most migrants move only a short distance. There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent. There is a process of dispersion, which is the inverse of absorption. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow. Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas. Females are more migratory than males. Economic factors are the main cause of migration
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Refugees
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People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
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Remittances
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money migrants send back to their family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
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Step Migration
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migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
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Time-Contract Workers
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Immigrants who come to a country to work, and then move back to their home country with money
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Transhumance
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The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
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Urbanization
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the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
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Suburbanization
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The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
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Counterurbanization
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Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.