A & P Mastering: CHAPTER 3 AND CHAPTER 4

12 September 2022
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22 test answers
question
Which of the following names the three main parts of a human cell? A. cytosol, nucleus, and membrane B. mitochondria, lysosome, and centriole C. plasma membrane, mitochondria and nucleus D. cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus
answer
D Human cells have three main parts: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.
question
Phospholipids provide the specific functions of the plasma membrane. True False
answer
FALSE Integral and peripheral proteins provide a variety of specific functions at the membrane.
question
Which of the following describes tight junctions? A. junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract B.cell junctions in areas that are subjected to great mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart muscles C. junctions within electrically excitable tissues, such as the heart and smooth muscle D. junctions where cells are held together by cadherins
answer
A In a tight junction, a series of integral protein molecules (including occludins and claudins) in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell. Tight junctions help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells. For example, tight junctions between epithelial cells lining the digestive tract keep digestive enzymes and microorganisms in the intestine from seeping into the bloodstream.
question
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane? A. phospholipids B. cholesterol C. carbohydrates D.water
answer
A Although phospholipids have a polar head, the long fatty acid tails are nonpolar, making the membrane mostly nonpolar.
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane? A. semipermeable B. not permeable C. impermeable D. fully permeable
answer
A The cell membrane is semipermeable, or selectively permeable, because some things can easily pass through it while others cannot.
question
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane? A. acting as receptors B. anchoring cells to other structures C. forming channels D. forming the entire glycocalyx
answer
D The glycocalyx is composed mostly of carbohydrates.
question
What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid? A. hydrophobic molecules B. fatty acid tails C. cholesterol D. phosphate heads of phospholipids
answer
D The phosphate heads of the phospholipids are polar, so they are attracted to the polar water molecules.
question
You observe a small, nonpolar molecule near a membrane. How would this molecule likely transport across the membrane? A. carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion B. simple diffusion C. active transport D. channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
answer
B Nonpolar (or lipid-soluble) molecules dissolve into the membrane and will transport with no additional transporter required.
question
Which of the following is not a passive process? A. Na+/K+ pump B. osmosis C. oxygen diffusion D. facilitated diffusion of glucose
answer
A This pump is a protein in the membrane that moves these ions only in one direction, and up their concentration gradient. This is active transport, and it requires the use of energy.
question
A primary active transport process is one in which __________. A. molecules move across the plasma membrane without an input of energy B. an intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid C. the plasma membrane folds inward to form a vesicle containing extracellular material D. molecules pass directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane E. molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
answer
E Primary active transporters, such as the sodium-potassium ATPase (or pump), are activated when ATP is hydrolyzed. This activation allows for the transport of solutes across the plasma membrane against concentration gradients.
question
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____. A. facilitated diffusion B. endocytosis C. simple diffusion D. exocytosis E. active transport
answer
A Facilitated diffusion is a passive transport process during which molecules move down their concentration gradients through transport proteins.
question
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____. A. cotransport B. a process that requires energy from the cell active transport C. facilitated diffusion D. simple diffusion
answer
C.
question
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____. A. exocytosis B. secondary active transport C. primary active transport D. facilitated diffusion E. simple diffusion
answer
C The sodium-potassium pump is activated by ATP. This activation allows the pump to transport sodium and potassium ions against their gradients.
question
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____. A. endocytosis B. facilitated diffusion C. simple diffusion D. exocytosis E. active transport
answer
D. The term exocytosis literally means "out of the cell."
question
What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane? A) Active transport is used to move substances down their concentration gradient, whereas passive transport is used to move substances against their concentration gradient B) Active transport means that the cell is actively going after substances that it wants to bring into the cell, whereas passive transport means that the cell just waits for the substance to cross the membrane. C) Active transport implies that the cell is working with other cells, whereas passive transport implies that the cell does not cooperate with other cells. D) Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
answer
D. In active transport, the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across the plasma membrane (against their concentration gradient). In passive transport, substances cross the plasma membrane (down their concentration gradient) using kinetic energy, without any energy input from the cell.
question
What is a membrane potential? A) cooperation between cells B) the possibility of cell activity C) the ability of the cells to perform their specialized functions D) a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
answer
D. The membrane potential is the electrical potential energy (measured in millivolts) resulting from the separation of oppositely charged particles (ions) across the plasma membrane. At rest, membrane potentials are typically negative, ranging from āˆ’50 to āˆ’100 mV, with more anions (than cations) concentrated along the internal surface of the membrane, and more cations (than anions) concentrated along the external surface.
question
Match the following terms to their definitions. Words can be used more than once. A)Tight junctions B)Desmosomes C)Gap junctions 1. Tight junctions: Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells. 2. Desmosomes: Type of anchoring junction. 3. Gap junctions: Allows ions and small molecules to pass through from one cell to another. 4. Gap junctions: Present in electrically excitable tissues. 5. Desmosomes: Abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress.
answer
1)A 2)B 3)C 4)C 5)B
question
What function do transitional epithelia have? A) stretching B) absorption C) resistance to friction D) filtration
answer
A. Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary system. It lines the ureters, bladder, and proximal part of the urethra--organs that are subjected to distention or stretching as urine passes through or fills them.
question
All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function. This property is called polarity. True False
answer
TRUE All epithelia exhibit polarity, which is defined by the presence of an apical, or free, surface and a basal, or attached, surface that differ in both structure and function.
question
Which of the following describes a holocrine gland? A) Holocrine glands secrete their products through a hollow, tubular duct. B) Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. C) Holocrine glands secrete their products by pinching off the apex of the cell. D) Holocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis.
answer
B. Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. Sebaceous (oil) glands are the only example of holocrine glands in the body.
question
You observe a tissue under a microscope. There appears to be a lumen on one side of the tissue. Lining this lumen, the cells seem to have long, fingerlike projections. Beneath the projections, the cells seem to have the shape of shoeboxes and are packed tightly together. What type of tissue are you looking at? A) simple columnar epithelia B) stratified squamous epithelia C) simple cuboidal epithelia D) transitional epithelia
answer
A. The shoebox represents the columnar shape. Additionally, the fingerlike projections are likely to be microvilli.
question
Which of the following is a dry membrane exposed to the air? A) serous membrane B) synovial membrane C) cutaneous membrane D) mucous membrane
answer
C. The cutaneous membrane is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis). Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.
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question
Which of the following names the three main parts of a human cell? A. cytosol, nucleus, and membrane B. mitochondria, lysosome, and centriole C. plasma membrane, mitochondria and nucleus D. cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus
answer
D Human cells have three main parts: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.
question
Phospholipids provide the specific functions of the plasma membrane. True False
answer
FALSE Integral and peripheral proteins provide a variety of specific functions at the membrane.
question
Which of the following describes tight junctions? A. junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract B.cell junctions in areas that are subjected to great mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart muscles C. junctions within electrically excitable tissues, such as the heart and smooth muscle D. junctions where cells are held together by cadherins
answer
A In a tight junction, a series of integral protein molecules (including occludins and claudins) in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell. Tight junctions help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells. For example, tight junctions between epithelial cells lining the digestive tract keep digestive enzymes and microorganisms in the intestine from seeping into the bloodstream.
question
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane? A. phospholipids B. cholesterol C. carbohydrates D.water
answer
A Although phospholipids have a polar head, the long fatty acid tails are nonpolar, making the membrane mostly nonpolar.
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane? A. semipermeable B. not permeable C. impermeable D. fully permeable
answer
A The cell membrane is semipermeable, or selectively permeable, because some things can easily pass through it while others cannot.
question
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane? A. acting as receptors B. anchoring cells to other structures C. forming channels D. forming the entire glycocalyx
answer
D The glycocalyx is composed mostly of carbohydrates.
question
What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid? A. hydrophobic molecules B. fatty acid tails C. cholesterol D. phosphate heads of phospholipids
answer
D The phosphate heads of the phospholipids are polar, so they are attracted to the polar water molecules.
question
You observe a small, nonpolar molecule near a membrane. How would this molecule likely transport across the membrane? A. carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion B. simple diffusion C. active transport D. channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
answer
B Nonpolar (or lipid-soluble) molecules dissolve into the membrane and will transport with no additional transporter required.
question
Which of the following is not a passive process? A. Na+/K+ pump B. osmosis C. oxygen diffusion D. facilitated diffusion of glucose
answer
A This pump is a protein in the membrane that moves these ions only in one direction, and up their concentration gradient. This is active transport, and it requires the use of energy.
question
A primary active transport process is one in which __________. A. molecules move across the plasma membrane without an input of energy B. an intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid C. the plasma membrane folds inward to form a vesicle containing extracellular material D. molecules pass directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane E. molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
answer
E Primary active transporters, such as the sodium-potassium ATPase (or pump), are activated when ATP is hydrolyzed. This activation allows for the transport of solutes across the plasma membrane against concentration gradients.
question
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____. A. facilitated diffusion B. endocytosis C. simple diffusion D. exocytosis E. active transport
answer
A Facilitated diffusion is a passive transport process during which molecules move down their concentration gradients through transport proteins.
question
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____. A. cotransport B. a process that requires energy from the cell active transport C. facilitated diffusion D. simple diffusion
answer
C.
question
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____. A. exocytosis B. secondary active transport C. primary active transport D. facilitated diffusion E. simple diffusion
answer
C The sodium-potassium pump is activated by ATP. This activation allows the pump to transport sodium and potassium ions against their gradients.
question
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____. A. endocytosis B. facilitated diffusion C. simple diffusion D. exocytosis E. active transport
answer
D. The term exocytosis literally means "out of the cell."
question
What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane? A) Active transport is used to move substances down their concentration gradient, whereas passive transport is used to move substances against their concentration gradient B) Active transport means that the cell is actively going after substances that it wants to bring into the cell, whereas passive transport means that the cell just waits for the substance to cross the membrane. C) Active transport implies that the cell is working with other cells, whereas passive transport implies that the cell does not cooperate with other cells. D) Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
answer
D. In active transport, the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across the plasma membrane (against their concentration gradient). In passive transport, substances cross the plasma membrane (down their concentration gradient) using kinetic energy, without any energy input from the cell.
question
What is a membrane potential? A) cooperation between cells B) the possibility of cell activity C) the ability of the cells to perform their specialized functions D) a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
answer
D. The membrane potential is the electrical potential energy (measured in millivolts) resulting from the separation of oppositely charged particles (ions) across the plasma membrane. At rest, membrane potentials are typically negative, ranging from āˆ’50 to āˆ’100 mV, with more anions (than cations) concentrated along the internal surface of the membrane, and more cations (than anions) concentrated along the external surface.
question
Match the following terms to their definitions. Words can be used more than once. A)Tight junctions B)Desmosomes C)Gap junctions 1. Tight junctions: Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells. 2. Desmosomes: Type of anchoring junction. 3. Gap junctions: Allows ions and small molecules to pass through from one cell to another. 4. Gap junctions: Present in electrically excitable tissues. 5. Desmosomes: Abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress.
answer
1)A 2)B 3)C 4)C 5)B
question
What function do transitional epithelia have? A) stretching B) absorption C) resistance to friction D) filtration
answer
A. Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary system. It lines the ureters, bladder, and proximal part of the urethra--organs that are subjected to distention or stretching as urine passes through or fills them.
question
All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function. This property is called polarity. True False
answer
TRUE All epithelia exhibit polarity, which is defined by the presence of an apical, or free, surface and a basal, or attached, surface that differ in both structure and function.
question
Which of the following describes a holocrine gland? A) Holocrine glands secrete their products through a hollow, tubular duct. B) Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. C) Holocrine glands secrete their products by pinching off the apex of the cell. D) Holocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis.
answer
B. Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. Sebaceous (oil) glands are the only example of holocrine glands in the body.
question
You observe a tissue under a microscope. There appears to be a lumen on one side of the tissue. Lining this lumen, the cells seem to have long, fingerlike projections. Beneath the projections, the cells seem to have the shape of shoeboxes and are packed tightly together. What type of tissue are you looking at? A) simple columnar epithelia B) stratified squamous epithelia C) simple cuboidal epithelia D) transitional epithelia
answer
A. The shoebox represents the columnar shape. Additionally, the fingerlike projections are likely to be microvilli.
question
Which of the following is a dry membrane exposed to the air? A) serous membrane B) synovial membrane C) cutaneous membrane D) mucous membrane
answer
C. The cutaneous membrane is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis). Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.