A/p Lab Exercise 30

25 July 2022
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The heart is located in a subdivision of the thorax called the _
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mediastinum
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The pericardial sac that encloses the heart is a two-layered structure. The outer layer is the _
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fibrous pericardium
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The portion of the pericardium that covers the heart wall is called the __
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visceral layer (epicardium)
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How many chambers make up the human heart?
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four
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The major pumping chambers of the heart are ____
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both ventricles
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The shapes and the thickness of the walls of the right ventricle compared to the left are _____
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different: L ventricle is egg-shaped (round in cross section) with thicker walls
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The mitral valve is located between the
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left atrium and left ventricle
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What is true of the semilunar valves?
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They lie between ventricles and the large arteries that leave the ventricles on each side of the heart.
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What is true about heart valves?
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They enforce a one-way blood flow through the heart, operate passively (no active contraction required), and separate atria from ventricles, and ventricles from the large arteries that leave them.
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Which side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs?
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Right
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The atrioventricular (AV) heart valves open and close
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passively, depending on the pressure of the blood in the atria and ventricles
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This structure is a remnant of a fetal vessel that connected the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.
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ligamentum arteriosum
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is/are found in the ventricles, and attach the flaps of the AV valves to papillary muscle.
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Chordae tendineae
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The ________ is/are a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers connecting the interventricular septum to anterior papillary muscles.
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moderator band
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Pulmonary veins carry ________ blood to the ________
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oxygenated; left
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The pulmonary trunk and arteries are color-coded ________ on models and in pictures, because they carry ________ blood.
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blue, deoxygenated
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Select the sequence that correctly describes blood flow through the heart.
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left atrium to left ventricle to body
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The largest artery in the body, the aorta, leaves the heart from the
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Left Ventricle
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Blood arriving in the right atrium has just come from the
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venae cavae and coronary sinus
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Blood has just been discharged into the pulmonary trunk: from which chamber did it exit?
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the right ventricle
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The heart is called a double pump because __
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it is two separate side-by-side pumps serving different circulations, it simultaneously pumps blood to the lungs (right side) and to all the other organs of the body (left side), and blood flows into and out of each side of the heart, but not from one side to the other
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These vessels carry oxygen-rich blood
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aorta and pulmonary veins
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What is the name of the circuit that supplies blood to the brain, heart, and gastrointestinal tract?
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systemic circulation
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In the coronary circulation, oxygen-rich blood is provided to the heart muscle by the
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right and left coronary arteries
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Which artery supplies the anterior ventricular walls and laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart?
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left coronary artery
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Which of the veins listed here drains directly into the right atrium
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anterior cardiac vein
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A blockage in which of these vessels would most likely cause a myocardial infarction in the lateral right side of the heart?
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right marginal artery
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Blood enters the left and right coronary arteries directly from which vessel or chamber?
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Blood flows to the right and left coronary arteries directly from the aorta.
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Cardiac muscle tissue _
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is striated, like skeletal muscle tissue
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The intercalated discs in cardiac muscle tissue
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mark the junction between two cardiac cells
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A proximal LAD lesion is a blockage in the left anterior descending artery, also known as the anterior interventricular artery. Explain why a heart attack caused by an obstruction of this artery is sometimes referred to as the "widow maker" heart attack.
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A blockage in the anterior interventricular artery prevents oxygen from reaching cardiac muscle cells in both ventricles. The atria are not powerful enough to pump blood to the lungs and body
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to the body. One sign of CHF is excess fluid in the tissue spaces, known as edema. Describe the location of the edema if the left side of the heart fails.
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lungs
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What is the name of the two receiving chambers of the heart?
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atria
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In the heart, the __________ ventricle has thicker walls and a basically circular cavity shape.
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left
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The right atrioventricular valve, or __________, prevents backflow into the right atrium when the right ventricle is contracting.
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tricuspid valve
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Two microscopic features of cardiac cells that help distinguish them from other types of muscle cells are branching of the cells and
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intercalated discs
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The left ventricle discharges blood into the __________, from which all systemic arteries of the body diverge to supply the body tissues.
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aorta
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The heart serves as a double pump. The __________ side serves as the pulmonary circulation pump, shunting carbon dioxide-rich blood to the lungs.
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right
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The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the
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pericardium
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The heart is divided into __________ chambers.
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four
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Blood flows through the heart in one directionโ€”from the atria to the ventricles
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true
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The blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself are the
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coronary arteries