A& P 2 Exam 3

24 July 2022
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question
If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomeulus becomes comstricted A. Blood flow into the efferent arteriole increases. B. Hydrostatic pressure in the glomeulus increases C. The protein concentration of the filtration increases D. The glomerular filtration rate decreases
answer
D. The glomerular filtration rate decreases
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As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure A. Rises and filtration decreases B. Rises and filtration increases C. Drops and filtration increases D. Drops and filtration decreases
answer
D. Drops and filtration decreases
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Blood leaves the glomeulus via A. Efferent arteriole B. Afferent arteriole C. Interlobar veins D. Renal vein E. Peritubular capillaries
answer
A. Efferent arteriole
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When the ventricular walls contract, A. The bicuspid valves opens and the tricuspid valve closes B. The bicuspid and the tricuspid valves open C. The tricuspid valve opens and the bicuspid valve closes D. The bicuspid and tricuspid valves close
answer
A. the bicuspid valve opens and the tricuspid valve closes
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T/F: The desending aorta divides near the brim of the pelvis to form the right and left common iliac arteries.
answer
True
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The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the_______. A. urethra B. ureter C. collecting duct D. renal vein
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B. ureter
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The renal medulla is also called the ______. A. renal papilla B. renal columns C. renal pyramids D. renal capsule
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C. renal pyramids
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Which of the following blood vessels is associated with the nephron? A. Arcuate artery B. Interlobar Vein C. Cortical radiate vein D. Efferent arteriole
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D. Efferent arteriole
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Which of the following empties urine directly into the renal pelvis? A. Ureter B. Renal papilla C. Major calyx D. Minor calyx
answer
C. Major calyx
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What is the cause of renal ptosis? A. Shortening of the ureter B. Bending of the ureter so that it becomes kinked C. Reduction in the fatty encasement around the kidneys D. Backup of urine from the bladder
answer
C. reduction in the fatty encasement around the kidneys
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Nephrons are found mostly in the ______. A. renal medulla B. renal cortex C. renal capsule D. renal sinus
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B. renal cortex
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The renal corpuscle consists of a ______. A. Renal tubule B. Glomerulus C. Glomerular capsule D. Both B and C
answer
D. Both B and C
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Which type of nephron plays an important role in production concentrated urine? A. Renal nephrons B. Cortical nephrons C. Medullary nephrons D. Juxtamedullary nephrons
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D. Juxtamedullary nephron
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Podocytes are part of the _____. A. Filtration slits B. Juxtaglomerular complex C. Glomerular capsule D. Proximal convoluted tubule
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C. Glomerular capsule
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Which region of the nephron has abundant microvilli? A. Glomerulus B. PCT C. Nephron loop D. DCT
answer
B. PCT
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Which of the following conditions would increase the glomerular filtration rate? A. An increases in colloid osmotic pressure B. An increase in glomerular hydrostic pressure C. An increase in capsular hydrostatic pressure D. All of the above would increase the GFR
answer
B. An increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure
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Which of the following substances would not be found in normal filtrate? A. Albumin B. Glucose C. Potassium D. Urea
answer
A. Albumin
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Which of the following would be a result of an increase in systemic blood pressure? A. Afferent arterioles constrict B. Efferent arterioles constrict C. Afferent arterioles dilate D. Peritubular capillaries dilate
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A. Afferent artérioles constrict
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What is the NFP if HP in 60 mm Hg, OP is 35 mm Hg, and HP is 15 mm Hg? A. 10 mm Hg B. 25 mm Hg C. 45 mm Hg D. 110 mm Hg
answer
A. 10 mm Hg
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Which of the following glomerular filtration mechanisms involves maula densa cells? A. Tubuloglomerular B. hormonal C. Myogenic D. Neural
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A. Tubuloglomerular
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Most of the nutrients in the filtrate are reabsorbed in the _____. A. Proximal convoluted tubule B. Distal convoluted tubule C. Nephron loop D. Glomerular capsule
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A. Proximal convoluted tubule
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In the distal convoluted tubule, a _______ is secreted for every sodium ion that is reabsorbed A. Chloride ion B. Bicarbonate ion C. Potassium ion D. Calcium ion
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C. Potassium ion
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When glucose spills over into the urine, it has ________. A. Been secreted B. Been filtered and secreted C. Exceeded its transport maximum D. Been completely cleared from the blood
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C. Excreeded its transport maximum
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If your urine contains fewer potassium ions than your filtrate, then some potassium has been _____. A. Filtered and secreted B. Filtered and reabsorbed C. Filtered only D. Secreted only
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B. Filtered and reabsorbed
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Hormonal control of sodium reabsorption controlled by _____ and occurs in the ________. A. Aldosterone, PCT B. ADH, nephron loop C. Aldosterone, DCT D. ADH, collecting duct
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C. Aldosterone, DCT
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Which of the following would be an abnormal constituent of urine? A. Sodium B. Potassium C. Albumin D. Urea
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C. Albumin
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The collecting ducts are _______ to water when the hormone ____ is present. A. Permeable; ADG B. Permeable; aldosterone C. Impermeable; ADH D. Impermeable; aldosterone
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A. Permeable; ADH
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Which of the following would be an abnormal pH for urine? A. 5.0 B. 6.0 C. 8.0 D. 11.0
answer
D. 11.0
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the portion of the nephron that maintains the hypertonicity of the renal medulla is the ______. A. Proximal convoluted tubule B. Glomerulus C. Nephron loop D. Distal convoluted tubule
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C. Nephron loop
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When urine enters the collectin duct, it is _____ to the blood. A. hypotonic B. hypertonic C. isotonic D. iosmotic
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A. hypotonic
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which part of the nephron employs a conter current mechanism? A. Glomerulus B. Nephron loop C. Distal convoluted tubule D. Juxtaglomerular complex
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B. Nephron loop
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Urine collection occurs in the _______ of the kidney. A. cortex B.medulla C. columns D. pelvis
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D. Pelvis
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What fraction of the cardiac output is delivered to the kidneys each minute? A.1/1000 B. 1/2 C. 1/4 D. 3/4
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C. 1/4
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The blood-filtering structure of the kidney is called the ________. A.glomerular capsule B. renal tubule C. glomerulus D. nephron
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C. Glomerulus
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The urine-forming units of the kidney are the ________. A.glomerular capsules B. renal tubules C. glomeruli D. nephrons
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D. Nephrons
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Based on the histology of a renal tubule, which section would be most severely inhibited if simple squamous epithelium were damaged? A. Proximal convoluted tubule B. Thin segment of the nephron loop C. Thick segment of the nephron loop D. Distal convoluted tubule
answer
B. Thin segment of the nephron loop
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The vasa recta are associated with which structures in the kidney? A. Glomeruli B. Juxtamedullary nephrons C. Afferent arterioles D. Cortical nephrons
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B. Juxtamedullary nephrons
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The juxtaglomerular complex is made of ________ cells from the afferent arteriole and the ________ cells of the DCT. A.mesangial; filtration B. filtration; mesangial C. granular; macula densa D. macula densa; granular
answer
C. granular; macula densa
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Which of the following factors contribute(s) to the higher filtration rate in the glomerular capillaries compared with other capillary beds? A. The glomerular capillaries are fenestrated. B. The diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole. C. The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is very porous. D. All of the above contribute
answer
D. All of the above contribute.
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How would giving a patient intravenous albumin affect filtration? A. Due to higher colloid osmotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower. B. Too much protein in the diet would abolish all filtration. C. High blood pressure from increased plasma proteins would increase filtration to twice its normal rate. D. Filtration would be unchanged, but the kidneys would suffer damage.
answer
A. Due to higher colloid osmotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower.
question
What type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased? A. The afferent arterioles would constrict. B.The afferent arterioles would dilate. C. The afferent arterioles would stimulate renin release. D. The afferent arterioles would not respond to blood pressure changes.
answer
A. The afferent arterioles would constrict.
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Autoregulatory mechanisms are most effective ________. A. for renin secretion B. when the arterial pressure drops below 80 mm Hg C. at releasing epinephrine D. when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180 mm Hg
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D.when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180 mm Hg
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Extrinsic controls regulate glomerular filtration rate as a means of regulating ________. A. systemic blood pressure B. cardiac output C. urine formation D. red blood cell production
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a. systemic blood pressure
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Which of the following general functions can be assigned to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system? A. Water conservation B. Blood pressure elevation C. Lowering blood sodium levels D. Both a and b
answer
d. Both a and b
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What would be the effect on urine output if sodium channels in the tubule cells were inhibited? A.The volume would increase. B.The volume would decrease, then quickly resume. C. The volume would decrease by half the sodium concentration. D. The volume would decrease by one-tenth the sodium concentration
answer
a. The volume would increase.
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Where does primary active transport of sodium occur in proximal convoluted tubule cells? A. Apical membrane B. Basolateral membrane C. Lateral membrane D. Endothelial membrane
answer
b. Basolateral membrane
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Why is glucose in the urine an indicator of diabetes mellitus? A. Glucose occupies all the transport carriers and it is no longer reabsorbed. B. Because diabetics cannot regulate their glucose. C. When blood glucose is high, it is secreted in the urine. D. Because diabetics have high levels of glucagon
answer
a. Glucose occupies all the transport carriers and it is no longer reabsorbed.
question
Why do high levels of potassium stimulate aldosterone secretion? A. Aldosterone stimulates potassium secretion at potassium-specific pumps. B. Aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to reabsorb sodium while simultaneously secreting potassium. C. Aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to secrete sodium while simultaneously reabsorbing potassium. D. High levels of potassium accompany high levels of sodium.
answer
b. Aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to reabsorb sodium while simultaneously secreting potassium.
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Which of the following processes in urine formation is important for regulating blood pH? A. Secretion B. Reabsorption C. Filtration D. Countercurrent multiplication
answer
a. Secretion
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Drinking too much alcohol results in a headache the next day. Why does this happen? A.Alcohol stimulates pain receptors in the brain. B.Alcohol stimulates sodium reabsorption. C.Alcohol stimulates aldosterone secretion. D. Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion.
answer
d. Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion.
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Why is the osmolarity of medullary fluid in the kidney almost four times higher than the osmolarity of plasma? A. The nephron loop acts as a countercurrent multiplier and contributes solutes to the interstitial fluid. B. Urea is recycled from the collecting duct and is transported to the interstitial fluid. C. The medullary cells in the kidney synthesize solutes to establish the high osmolarity. D. Both a and b occur.
answer
d. Both a and b occur.
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How does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine? A. ADH increases the permeability of the ascending limb of the nephron loop to water. B. ADH increases the permeability of the descending limb of the nephron loop to water. C. ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane. D. ADH decreases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by inhibiting the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane.
answer
c. ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane.
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What role do the vasa recta play in urine formation? A. The vasa recta create the medullary osmotic gradient. B. The vasa recta protect the medullary osmotic gradient by preventing rapid removal of salt. C. The vasa recta receive the dilute filtrate from the distal convoluted tubule. D. The vasa recta deliver urea to the medullary interstitial fluid.
answer
b. The vasa recta protect the medullary osmotic gradient by preventing rapid removal of salt.
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When considering drug administration, why is it important to know the renal clearance rate of the drug? A. It dictates the dosage and frequency of administration of drugs. B. It denotes how often drugs are recycled in the kidney. C. It is used to determine the healing rate of an infection. D. All of the above are factors in renal clearance rate.
answer
a. It dictates the dosage and frequency of administration of drugs.
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Which of the following constitutes the largest solute component of urine? A. Sodium B. Potassium C. Urea D. Creatine
answer
c. Urea
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Urine from a person with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus has a(n) _______ due to the presence of _______. A. brown color, bile pigments B. fruity odor, acetone C. acidic pH, protein D. high specific gravity, sodium chloride
answer
b. fruity odor, acetone
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Which of the following is not a layer of the ureter? A. Muscularis b. Mucosa C. Adventitia D. Endothelium
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d. Endothelium
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What features of the bladder predispose it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly? A. The wall contains smooth muscle. B. The trigone acts as a spring when the bladder empties. C. The walls are highly folded into rugae and the epithelium is transitional. D. When the bladder is emptied, the digestive viscera compress it
answer
c. The walls are highly folded into rugae and the epithelium is transitional.
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The process of voiding the bladder is called ______. A. micturition B. the urethral reflex C. detrusor activation D. incontinence
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a. micturition
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What is the functional difference between a male urethra and a female urethra? A. Males have three urethral sphincters. B. The male urethra is shared with the reproductive system. C. The male urethra is connected to the renal pelvis. D. The female urethra is much longer than a male's.
answer
b. The male urethra is shared with the reproductive system.
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Which of the following is not a change that occurs with old age? A. The bladder shrinks. B.The number of nephrons decreases. C.Bladder tone decreases. D.Nocturia decreases.
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d. Nocturia decreases.
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Lymphatic vessels _______. a. collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces B. drain blood from lymph nodes C. are part of the venous system D are built like arteries
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a. collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces
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Lymphatic capillaries owe their permeability to the presence of _______. A. an open end that siphons fluid from the interstitial fluid B. minivalves in their walls C. tight junctions between adjacent cells D. proteins in the lymph fluid
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b. minivalves in their walls
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Which of the following represents a logical sequence of structures that contribute to the return of fluid into the blood via the lymphatic system? A. Blood capillaries, arteries, lymphatic vessels, subclavian vein B. Arteries, lymphatic vessels, blood capillaries, subclavian vein C. Arteries, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels, subclavian vein D Subclavian vein, arteries, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels
answer
c. Arteries, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels, subclavian vein
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Which of the following contribute(s) to the flow of lymph through lymphatic vessels? A. The pumping of the heart B. The milking action of skeletal muscle contraction C. Pressure changes in the thorax that result from breathing D. Both b and c
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d. Both b and c
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Which of the following would the body perceive as an antigen? A. Bacteria B. Virus C. Mismatched red blood cell D. All of the above
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d. All of the above
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An advantage to having reticular connective tissue present in lymph nodes is that ________. A. the loose organization of reticular connective tissue provides niches for macrophages and lymphocytes B. lymph filters through the nodes and is exposed to lymphocytes and macrophages C. lymphocytes cycle to various areas of the body and back to lymph nodes D. all of the above take place
answer
d. all of the above take place
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Lymph tends to stall inside lymph nodes. This is due to _______. A. small-diameter spaces within the medulla B. the large volume of lymph entering the node C. fewer efferent lymphatic vessels than afferent lymphatic vessels D. fewer afferent lymphatic vessels than efferent lymphatic vessels
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c. fewer efferent lymphatic vessels than afferent lymphatic vessels
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Buboes are inflamed, swollen _______. A. tonsils B. thymus C. spleen D. lymph nodes
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d. lymph nodes
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_______ can enter lymphatic capillaries A. Bacteria B. Large proteins C. Interstitial fluid D. All of the above
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d. All of the above
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The ______ is the largest lymphoid organ A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil
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b. spleen
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Red pulp of the spleen is most concerned with _______, while white pulp is most concerned with _________. A. immunity; new red blood cell formation B. filtering lymph; T lymphocyte formation C. blood filtering; immunity D. urine formation; blood filtering
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c. blood filtering; immunity
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Which of the following lymphoid tissues removes defective red blood cells from the blood? A. Lymph node B. Thymus C. Spleen D. Peyer's patches
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c. Spleen
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The thymus is important for _______. A. T lymphocyte maturation B. removal of foreign antigens C. B lymphocyte maturation D. secretion of hormones that promote B lymphocyte immunocompetence
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a. T lymphocyte maturation
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Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by ________. A. secreting antibodies into the blood B. trapping food particles to support bacterial growth C. trapping pathogens so lymphocytes can encounter them and develop immune cells with memory D. producing B lymphocytes
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c. trapping pathogens so lymphocytes can encounter them and develop immune cells with memory
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Which lymphoid organ is not derived from mesodermal mesenchymal cells? A. Lymph nodes B. Thymus C. Spleen D. Lymphatic vessels
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b. Thymus
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Once fluid enters the lymphatic system it is called ________. A. tissue fluid B. blood C. lymph D. plasma
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C. Lymph
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The thoracic duct receives lymph from ________. A. the upper left body B. the upper right body C. the lower body D. both a and c
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D. both a and c
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Fluid enters the lymphatic system directly from the _______. A. blood capillaries B.interstitial space C. lymph-collecting ducts D. lymphatic trunks
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B. interstitial space
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Which of the following is not a mechanism for moving lymph along lymphatic vessels? A. Valves to prevent backflow B. Pressure changes in the thorax during breathing C. Milking action of active skeletal muscles D. Pumping of lymph by the heart
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D. Pumping of lymph by the heart
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These highly specialized lymphatic capillaries are found in the intestinal mucosa. A. Cisterna chyli B. Lacteals C. Peyer's patches D. Thoracic ducts
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B. Lacteals
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These cells produce the fiber stroma of the lymphoid organs. A. Macrophages B. Dendritic cells C. Reticular cells D. Plasma cells
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C. Reticular cells
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Isolated areas of lymphoid follicles found in the intestinal mucosa are called ________. A.lacteals B. Peyer's patches C. germinal centers D. duodenal glands
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B. Peyer's patches
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These cells are able to produce antibodies. A. T lymphocytes B. Plasma cells C. Macrophages D. Dendritic cells
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B. Plasma cells
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These cells populate the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles. A. T lymphocytes B. B lymphocytes C. Reticular cells D. Macrophages
answer
B. B lymphocytes
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All of the following statements are true of most lymphoid tissues except _______. A. they house lymphocytes and macrophages B. they are largely composed of reticular connective tissue C. they are the site of lymphocyte proliferation D. the B lymphocytes are able to secrete antigens into the blood
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D. the B lymphocytes are able to secrete antigens into the blood
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These connective tissue strands divide lymph nodes into compartments. A. Capsule B. Cisternae C. Trabeculae D. Valves
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C. Trabeculae
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Large clusters of lymph nodes are found near the body surface in all of the following areas except the _______. A. axillary region B. popliteal region C. inguinal region D. cervical region
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B. popliteal region
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Macrophages are concentrated in which portion of the lymph node? A. Cortex B. Sinuses C. Medulla D. Capsule
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C. Medulla
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Which cell type in the lymph node has an active role in filtering the lymph? A. T cells B. B cells C. Macrophages D. Reticular cells
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C. Macrophages
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What is the term for large lymphatic capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers? A. Lymph sinuses B. Medullary cords C. Trabeculae D. Subcapsular sinuses
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A. Lymph sinuses
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The largest lymphoid organ in the human body is the _______. A. liver B. spleen C. thymus D. intestine
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B. spleen
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Which of the following tissues is not considered part of MALT? A. Peyer's patches B. Appendix C. Tonsils D. Spleen
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D. Spleen
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Blind-ended crypts are found in the ________. A. spleen B. thymus C. tonsils D. appendix
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C. tonsils
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Macrophages would most likely be found in this portion of the spleen. A. Splenic cords B. White pulp C. Brown pulp D. Hassall's corpuscles
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A. Splenic cords
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Regulatory T cell development occurs at what structures? A. Capsule B. Medulla C. Cortex D. Thymic corpuscles
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D. Thymic corpuscles
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All of the following statements are true of the spleen except _______. A. it stores platelets B. it produces red blood cells in the fetus C. it removes debris and foreign matter from the blood D. it atrophies after puberty
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D. it atrophies after puberty
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This organ ensures that the T lymphocytes are immunocompetent. A. Spleen B. Thymus C. Liver D. Thyroid gland
answer
B. Thymus
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This organ ensures that the T lymphocytes are immunocompetent. A. Spleen B. Thymus C. Liver D. Thyroid gland
answer
B. Thymus
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B cells are found in all of the following except _______. A. spleen B. thymus C. tonsils D. appendix
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B. thymus
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B cells are found in all of the following except _______. A. spleen B. thymus C. tonsils D. appendix
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B. thymus
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The lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens is the _______. A. spleen B. thymus C. tonsil D. appendix
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B. thymus
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Which of the following is a function only of the lymph nodes and not the other lymphoid organs? A. Filter lymph B. Store lymphocytes C. Fight infection D. Generate memory lymphocytes
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A. Filter lymph
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MALT would most likely be found here. A. Throat B. CNS C. Dermis D. Peritoneal surface
answer
A. Throat
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Which group of messengers is defined as acting on cells within the same tissue? A. Autocrines B. Hormones C .Paracrines D. Eicosanoids
answer
C .Paracrines
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A major difference between neurotransmitters and hormones is that hormones are secreted ________. A. directly onto their target cell B. into the cerebrospinal fluid C. into ducts D. into the blood
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D. into the blood
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A major determinant of a hormone's mechanism of action is ________. A. whether the hormonal molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic B. its size C. whether it is rapid acting or slow acting D. if it activates gene activity or not
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A. whether the hormonal molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic
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Receptors for steroid hormones are commonly located _________. A. inside the target cell B. on the plasma membrane of the target cell C. in the blood plasma D. in the extracellular fluid
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A. inside the target cell
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Interaction with a membrane-bound receptor will transduce the hormonal message via __________. A. depolarization B. direct gene activation C. a second messenger D. endocytosis
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C. a second messenger
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Second messenger-activating hormones circulate in minute quantities because ________. A. they are not important signal molecules B. small concentrations of hormone can activate many intracellular signals via amplification C. they are continuously released from the gland D. neurotransmitters also bind to hormone receptors
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B. small concentrations of hormone can activate many intracellular signals via amplification
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Which of the following molecules act as second messengers? A. cAMP B. Ca2+ C. Inositol triphosphate D. All of the above
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D. All of the above
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In order for a hormone to activate a target cell, the target cell must possess _______. A. a receptor B. a second messenger C. the hormone D. a chaperone
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A. a receptor
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When an infant suckles at his mother's breast, the mother's neurohypophysis releases oxytocin. This is an example of ________ stimulation. A. humoral B. neural C. hormonal D. negative feedback
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B. neural
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When the ovaries secrete estrogen in response to the hormone GnRH, this is an example of ________ stimulation. A. humoral B. neural C. hormonal D. negative feedback
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C. hormonal
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Blood levels of hormone are kept within very narrow ranges by ______ mechanisms. A. humoral B. neural C. hormonal D. negative feedback
answer
D. negative feedback
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Which hormone is produced in the hypothalamus? A. ADH B. ACTH C. LH D. GH
answer
A. ADH
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Hormones secreted into the hypophyseal portal system are detected by the ________. A. neurohypophysis B. adenohypophysis C. median eminence D. infundibulum
answer
B. adenohypophysis
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The long bone growth-promoting effects of growth hormone are mediated by _______. A. somatostatin B. somatotropic cells C. insulin-like growth factors D. insulin
answer
C. insulin-like growth factors
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Secretions from the corticotropic cells activate cells of the ________, while secretions from the gonadotropic cells affect cells of the ________. A. adrenal cortex; gonads B. thyroid; mammary glands C. gonads; adrenal cortex D. mammary glands; gonads
answer
A. adrenal cortex; gonads
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A patient is displaying high volumes of urine output and severe dehydration. The most likely cause is _________. A. hyposecretion of oxytocin B. hypersecretion of oxytocin C. hyposecretion of ADH D. hypersecretion of ADH
answer
C. hyposecretion of ADH
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Where is iodide located in the thyroid gland? A. Secretory vesicles inside follicular cells B. Lumen of follicle C. Golgi apparatus of parafollicular cells D. Cytoplasm of follicular cells
answer
D. Cytoplasm of follicular cells
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Which of the following is an indirect effect of PTH? A. Increasing osteoclast activity B. Increasing calcium absorption in the intestines C. Increasing calcium reabsorption in the kidney D. Activating vitamin D
answer
B. Increasing calcium absorption in the intestines
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A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely, and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from _______. A. hypothyroidism B. cretinism C. hyperthyroidism D. hypersecretion of calcitonin
answer
C. hyperthyroidism
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Occasionally, a female patient experiences hirsutism, or excessive facial hair growth, yet blood tests reveal that her levels of testosterone are normal for a female. Another cause could be hypersecretion of _______. A. catecholamines B. mineralocorticoids C. glucocorticoids D. gonadocorticoids
answer
D. gonadocorticoids
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__________ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels A. Cortisol B. DHEA C. Aldosterone D. Epinephrine
answer
C. Aldosterone
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_________ trigger(s) secretion of aldosterone. A. Increased K+ B. Angiotensin II C. ANP D. Both a and b
answer
D. Both a and b
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During times of stress, elevated levels of _______ often occur, which explains why we get a cold during final exam time. A. cortisol B. aldosterone C. ACTH D. androgens
answer
A. cortisol
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Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the _________ is the other primary mediator of acute stress. A. adrenal medulla B. adrenal cortex C. zona glomerulosa D. zona reticularis
answer
A. adrenal medulla
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Which of the following is not an action of glucagon? A. Release of glucose to the blood by liver cells B. Transport of glucose into most body cells C. Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid D. Breakdown of glycogen
answer
B. Transport of glucose into most body cells
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The secretion of ________ helps regulate our circadian rhythms. A. estrogen B testosterone C. hormones D. melatonin
answer
D. melatonin
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The thymus secretes the hormone(s) ______________. A. thymopoietin B. thymosin C. thymulin D. all of the above
answer
D. all of the above
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Which of the following structures produces a hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production? A. Stomach B.. Heart C. Kidney D. Skin
answer
C. Kidney
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Which of the following structures produces a precursor to hormonal vitamin D, important for Ca2+ regulation? A. Stomach B. Heart C. Kidney D. Skin
answer
D. Skin